1921
Volume 87, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

In October of 2008, an outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in northern California that sickened 30 of 38 attendees of an event at which meat from a black bear was served. Morphologic and molecular testing of muscle from the leftover portion of bear meat revealed that the bear was infected with , a sylvatic species of found in temperate North America. Clinical records revealed a high attack rate for this outbreak: 78% for persons consuming any bear meat and 100% for persons consuming raw or undercooked bear meat. To our knowledge, this report is the first published report of a human trichinellosis outbreak in the United States attributed to , and it is the second such outbreak reported worldwide.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075
2012-08-01
2017-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/87/2/297.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Dupouy-Camet J, Kociecka W, Bruschi F, Bolas-Fernandez F, Pozio E, , 2002. Opinion on the diagnosis and treatment of human trichinellosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother 3: 11171130.[Crossref]
  2. Owen R, , 1835. Description of a microscopic entozoon infesting the muscles of the human body. Trans Zool Soc London 1: 315324.[Crossref]
  3. Pozio E, Hoberg E, La Rosa G, Zarlenga DS, , 2009. Molecular taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography of nematodes belonging to the Trichinella genus. Infect Genet Evol 90: 606616.[Crossref]
  4. Dubey JP, Hill DE, Zarlenga DS, , 2006. A Trichinella murrelli infection in a domestic dog in the United States. Vet Parasitol 137: 374378.[Crossref]
  5. Hill DE, Samuel MD, Nolden CA, Sundar N, Zarlenga DS, Dubey JP, , 2008. Trichinella murrelli in scavenging mammals from south-central Wisconsin, USA. J Wildl Dis 44: 629635.[Crossref]
  6. Pozio E, La Rosa G, , 2000. Trichinella murrelli n. sp: etiological agent of sylvatic trichinellosis in temperate areas of North America. J Parasitol 86: 134139.[Crossref]
  7. Gajadhar AA, Forbes LB, , 2010. A 10-year wildlife survey of 15 species of Canadian carnivores identifies new hosts or geographic locations for Trichinella genotypes T2, T4, T5, and T6. Vet Parasitol 168: 7883.[Crossref]
  8. Ancelle T, Dupouy-Camet J, Bougnoux ME, Fourestie V, Petit H, Mougeot G, Nozais JP, Lapierre J, , 1988. Two outbreaks of trichinosis caused by horsemeat in France in 1985. Am J Epidemiol 127: 13021311.[Crossref]
  9. Dupouy-Camet J, Robert F, Guillou JP, Vallet C, Perret C, Soule C, , 1994. Identification of Trichinella isolates with random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Parasitol Res 80: 358360.[Crossref]
  10. van Knapen F, Franchimont JH, Verdonk AR, Stumpf J, Undeutsch K, , 1982. Detection of specific immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and total IgE levels in human trichinosis by means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Am J Trop Med Hyg 31: 973976.
  11. Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T, Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Folds JD, , 2006. Molecular and immunological approaches to the diagnosis of parasitic infection. , eds. Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 557568.
  12. Yera H, Andiva S, Perret C, Limonne D, Boireau P, Dupouy-Camet J, , 2003. Development and evaluation of a Western blot kit for diagnosis of human trichinellosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10: 793796.
  13. Zarlenga DS, Chute MB, Martin A, Kapel CM, , 1999. A multiplex PCR for unequivocal differentiation of all encapsulated and non-encapsulated genotypes of Trichinella . Int J Parasitol 29: 18591867.[Crossref]
  14. Gottstein B, Pozio E, Nockler K, , 2009. Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of trichinellosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 127145.[Crossref]
  15. Roy SL, Lopez AS, Schantz PM, , 2003. Trichinellosis surveillance—United States, 1997–2001. MMWR Surveill Summ 52: 18.
  16. Clark PS, Brownsberger KM, Saslow AR, Kagan IG, Noble GR, Maynard JE, , 1972. Bear meat trichinosis. Epidemiologic, serologic, and clinical observations from two Alaskan outbreaks. Ann Intern Med 76: 951956.[Crossref]
  17. Maynard JE, Pauls FP, , 1962. Trichinosis in Alaska. A review and report of two outbreaks due to bear meat with observations on serodiagnosis and skin testing. Am J Hyg 76: 252261.
  18. Nelson M, Wright TL, Pierce A, Krogwold RA, , 2003. A common-source outbreak of trichinosis from consumption of bear meat. J Environ Health 65: 1619, 24.
  19. Roselle HA, Schwartz DT, Geer FC, , 1965. Trichnosis from New England Bear Meat: report of an Epidemic. N Engl J Med 272: 304305.[Crossref]
  20. Wand M, Lyman D, , 1972. Trichinosis from bear meat: clinical and laboratory features. JAMA 220: 245246.[Crossref]
  21. Dupouy-Camet J, Paugam A, De Pinieux G, Lavarde V, Vieillefond A, , 2001. Trichinella murrelli: pathological features in human muscles at different delays after infection. Parasite 8: S176S179.[Crossref]
  22. MacLean JD, Poirier L, Gyorkos TW, Proulx JF, Bourgeault J, Corriveau A, Illisituk S, Staudt M, , 1992. Epidemiologic and serologic definition of primary and secondary trichinosis in the Arctic. J Infect Dis 165: 908912.[Crossref]
  23. Schellenberg RS, Tan BJ, Irvine JD, Stockdale DR, Gajadhar AA, Serhir B, Botha J, Armstrong CA, Woods SA, Blondeau JM, McNab TL, , 2003. An outbreak of trichinellosis due to consumption of bear meat infected with Trichinella nativa, in 2 northern Saskatchewan communities. J Infect Dis 188: 835843.[Crossref]
  24. Gamble HR, Bessonov AS, Cuperlovic K, Gajadhar AA, van Knapen F, Noeckler K, Schenone H, Zhu X, , 2000. International Commission on trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption. Vet Parasitol 93: 393408.[Crossref]
  25. Kapel CM, , 2000. Host diversity and biological characteristics of the Trichinella genotypes and their effect on transmission. Vet Parasitol 93: 263278.[Crossref]
  26. Fröscher W, Gullotta F, Saathoff M, Tackmann W, , 1988. Chronic trichinosis. Clinical, bioptic, serological and electromyographic observations. Eur Neurol 28: 221226.[Crossref]
  27. Harms G, Binz P, Feldmeier H, Zwingenberger K, Schleehauf D, Dewes W, Kress-Hermesdorf I, Klindworth C, Bienzle U, , 1993. Trichinosis: a prospective controlled study of patients ten years after acute infection. Clin Infect Dis 17: 637643.[Crossref]
  28. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2010. State Reportable Conditions Assessment. Available at: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx. Accessed May 8, 2012.
  29. Harbottle JE, English DK, Schultz MG, , 1971. Trichinosis in bears in northeastern United States. HSMHA Health Rep 86: 473476.[Crossref]
  30. Kennedy ED, Hall RL, Montgomery SP, Pyburn DG, Jones JL, , 2009. Trichinellosis surveillance—United States, 2002–2007. MMWR Surveill Summ 58: 17.
  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Summary of notifiable diseases: United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58: 1718.
  32. Capó V, Despommier DD, , 1996. Clinical aspects of infection with Trichinella spp. Clin Microbiol Rev 9: 4754.
  33. American Veterinary Medical Association, 2010. Disease Precautions for Hunters. Available at: http://www.avma.org/public_health/zoonotic_risks/hunters_precautions.pdf. Accessed May 8, 2012.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Feb 2012
  • Accepted : 23 Mar 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error