1921
Volume 87, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

In October of 2008, an outbreak of trichinellosis occurred in northern California that sickened 30 of 38 attendees of an event at which meat from a black bear was served. Morphologic and molecular testing of muscle from the leftover portion of bear meat revealed that the bear was infected with , a sylvatic species of found in temperate North America. Clinical records revealed a high attack rate for this outbreak: 78% for persons consuming any bear meat and 100% for persons consuming raw or undercooked bear meat. To our knowledge, this report is the first published report of a human trichinellosis outbreak in the United States attributed to , and it is the second such outbreak reported worldwide.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075
2012-08-01
2020-09-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/87/2/297.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Dupouy-Camet J, Kociecka W, Bruschi F, Bolas-Fernandez F, Pozio E, 2002. Opinion on the diagnosis and treatment of human trichinellosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother 3: 11171130.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Owen R, 1835. Description of a microscopic entozoon infesting the muscles of the human body. Trans Zool Soc London 1: 315324.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Pozio E, Hoberg E, La Rosa G, Zarlenga DS, 2009. Molecular taxonomy, phylogeny, and biogeography of nematodes belonging to the Trichinella genus. Infect Genet Evol 90: 606616.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Dubey JP, Hill DE, Zarlenga DS, 2006. A Trichinella murrelli infection in a domestic dog in the United States. Vet Parasitol 137: 374378.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Hill DE, Samuel MD, Nolden CA, Sundar N, Zarlenga DS, Dubey JP, 2008. Trichinella murrelli in scavenging mammals from south-central Wisconsin, USA. J Wildl Dis 44: 629635.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Pozio E, La Rosa G, 2000. Trichinella murrelli n. sp: etiological agent of sylvatic trichinellosis in temperate areas of North America. J Parasitol 86: 134139.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Gajadhar AA, Forbes LB, 2010. A 10-year wildlife survey of 15 species of Canadian carnivores identifies new hosts or geographic locations for Trichinella genotypes T2, T4, T5, and T6. Vet Parasitol 168: 7883.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Ancelle T, Dupouy-Camet J, Bougnoux ME, Fourestie V, Petit H, Mougeot G, Nozais JP, Lapierre J, 1988. Two outbreaks of trichinosis caused by horsemeat in France in 1985. Am J Epidemiol 127: 13021311.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Dupouy-Camet J, Robert F, Guillou JP, Vallet C, Perret C, Soule C, 1994. Identification of Trichinella isolates with random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Parasitol Res 80: 358360.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  10. van Knapen F, Franchimont JH, Verdonk AR, Stumpf J, Undeutsch K, 1982. Detection of specific immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and total IgE levels in human trichinosis by means of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Am J Trop Med Hyg 31: 973976.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Wilson M, Schantz P, Nutman T, 2006. Molecular and immunological approaches to the diagnosis of parasitic infection. Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Folds JD, eds. Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 557568.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Yera H, Andiva S, Perret C, Limonne D, Boireau P, Dupouy-Camet J, 2003. Development and evaluation of a Western blot kit for diagnosis of human trichinellosis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10: 793796.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Zarlenga DS, Chute MB, Martin A, Kapel CM, 1999. A multiplex PCR for unequivocal differentiation of all encapsulated and non-encapsulated genotypes of Trichinella . Int J Parasitol 29: 18591867.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Gottstein B, Pozio E, Nockler K, 2009. Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of trichinellosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 127145.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Roy SL, Lopez AS, Schantz PM, 2003. Trichinellosis surveillance—United States, 1997–2001. MMWR Surveill Summ 52: 18.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Clark PS, Brownsberger KM, Saslow AR, Kagan IG, Noble GR, Maynard JE, 1972. Bear meat trichinosis. Epidemiologic, serologic, and clinical observations from two Alaskan outbreaks. Ann Intern Med 76: 951956.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Maynard JE, Pauls FP, 1962. Trichinosis in Alaska. A review and report of two outbreaks due to bear meat with observations on serodiagnosis and skin testing. Am J Hyg 76: 252261.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Nelson M, Wright TL, Pierce A, Krogwold RA, 2003. A common-source outbreak of trichinosis from consumption of bear meat. J Environ Health 65: 1619, 24.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Roselle HA, Schwartz DT, Geer FC, 1965. Trichnosis from New England Bear Meat: report of an Epidemic. N Engl J Med 272: 304305.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Wand M, Lyman D, 1972. Trichinosis from bear meat: clinical and laboratory features. JAMA 220: 245246.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Dupouy-Camet J, Paugam A, De Pinieux G, Lavarde V, Vieillefond A, 2001. Trichinella murrelli: pathological features in human muscles at different delays after infection. Parasite 8: S176S179.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  22. MacLean JD, Poirier L, Gyorkos TW, Proulx JF, Bourgeault J, Corriveau A, Illisituk S, Staudt M, 1992. Epidemiologic and serologic definition of primary and secondary trichinosis in the Arctic. J Infect Dis 165: 908912.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Schellenberg RS, Tan BJ, Irvine JD, Stockdale DR, Gajadhar AA, Serhir B, Botha J, Armstrong CA, Woods SA, Blondeau JM, McNab TL, 2003. An outbreak of trichinellosis due to consumption of bear meat infected with Trichinella nativa, in 2 northern Saskatchewan communities. J Infect Dis 188: 835843.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Gamble HR, Bessonov AS, Cuperlovic K, Gajadhar AA, van Knapen F, Noeckler K, Schenone H, Zhu X, 2000. International Commission on trichinellosis: recommendations on methods for the control of Trichinella in domestic and wild animals intended for human consumption. Vet Parasitol 93: 393408.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kapel CM, 2000. Host diversity and biological characteristics of the Trichinella genotypes and their effect on transmission. Vet Parasitol 93: 263278.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Fröscher W, Gullotta F, Saathoff M, Tackmann W, 1988. Chronic trichinosis. Clinical, bioptic, serological and electromyographic observations. Eur Neurol 28: 221226.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Harms G, Binz P, Feldmeier H, Zwingenberger K, Schleehauf D, Dewes W, Kress-Hermesdorf I, Klindworth C, Bienzle U, 1993. Trichinosis: a prospective controlled study of patients ten years after acute infection. Clin Infect Dis 17: 637643.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2010. State Reportable Conditions Assessment. Available at: http://www.cste.org/dnn/ProgramsandActivities/PublicHealthInformatics/StateReportableConditionsQueryResults/tabid/261/Default.aspx. Accessed May 8, 2012.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Harbottle JE, English DK, Schultz MG, 1971. Trichinosis in bears in northeastern United States. HSMHA Health Rep 86: 473476.[Crossref]
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Kennedy ED, Hall RL, Montgomery SP, Pyburn DG, Jones JL, 2009. Trichinellosis surveillance—United States, 2002–2007. MMWR Surveill Summ 58: 17.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Summary of notifiable diseases: United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58: 1718.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Capó V, Despommier DD, 1996. Clinical aspects of infection with Trichinella spp. Clin Microbiol Rev 9: 4754.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. American Veterinary Medical Association, 2010. Disease Precautions for Hunters. Available at: http://www.avma.org/public_health/zoonotic_risks/hunters_precautions.pdf. Accessed May 8, 2012.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0075
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Feb 2012
  • Accepted : 23 Mar 2012
  • Published online : 01 Aug 2012
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error