1921
Volume 87, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

In Vietnam, and are responsible for most malaria infections, and and infections are rarely reported. Nevertheless, species-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis on 2,303 blood samples collected during a cross-sectional survey conducted in a forest area of central Vietnam identified 223 (9.7%) , 170 (7.4%) , 95 (4.1%) , and 19 (0.8%) mono-infections and 164 (7.1%) mixed infections. Of the 671 -positive samples by polymerase chain reaction, only 331 were detected by microscopy. Microscopy poorly diagnosed , , and mixed infections. Clinical and sub-clinical infections occurred in all age groups. The risk for infection and disease decreased with age, probably because of acquired partial immunity. The common occurrence of sub-patent infections seems to indicate that the malaria burden is underestimated and that diagnostic and therapeutic policies should be adapted accordingly.

[open-access] This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene's Re-use License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0047
2012-12-05
2017-11-23
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/87/6/989.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0047&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Thang ND, Erhart A, Hung le X, Thuan le K, Xa NX, Thanh NN, Ky PV, Coosemans M, Speybroeck N, D'Alessandro U, , 2009. Rapid decrease of malaria morbidity following the introduction of community-based monitoring in a rural area of central Vietnam. Malar J 8: 3.[Crossref]
  2. Erhart A, Ngo DT, Phan VK, Ta TT, van Overmeir C, Speybroeck N, Obsomer V, Le XH, Le KT, Coosemans M, D'Alessandro U, , 2005. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey. Malar J 4: 58.[Crossref]
  3. Kawamoto F, Miyake H, Kaneko O, Kimura M, Nguyen TD, Nguyen TD, Liu Q, Zhou M, Le DD, Kawai S, Isomura S, Wataya Y, , 1996. Sequence variation in the 18S rRNA gene, a target for PCR-based malaria diagnosis, in Plasmodium ovale from southern Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol 34: 22872289.
  4. Gleason NN, Fisher GU, Blumhardt R, Roth AE, Gaffney GW, , 1970. Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in Vietnam. Bull World Health Organ 42: 399403.
  5. Ladeia-Andrade S, Ferreira MU, de Carvalho ME, Curado I, Coura JR, , 2009. Age-dependent acquisition of protective immunity to malaria in riverine populations of the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 452459.
  6. Alves FP, Durlacher RR, Menezes MJ, Krieger H, Silva LH, Camargo EP, , 2002. High prevalence of asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in native Amazonian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 641648.
  7. Steenkeste N, Rogers WO, Okell L, Jeanne I, Incardona S, Duval L, Chy S, Hewitt S, Chou M, Socheat D, Babin FX, Ariey F, Rogier C, , 2010. Sub-microscopic malaria cases and mixed malaria infection in a remote area of high malaria endemicity in Rattanakiri Province, Cambodia: implication for malaria elimination. Malar J 9: 108.[Crossref]
  8. Putaporntip C, Hongsrimuang T, Seethamchai S, Kobasa T, Limkittikul K, Cui L, Jongwutiwes S, , 2009. Differential prevalence of Plasmodium infections and cryptic Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in humans in Thailand. J Infect Dis 199: 11431150.[Crossref]
  9. Alves FP, Gil LH, Marrelli MT, Ribolla PE, Camargo EP, Da Silva LH, , 2005. Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. as infection source for malaria vector mosquitoes in the Brazilian Amazon. J Med Entomol 42: 777779.[Crossref]
  10. Coura JR, Suárez-Mutis M, Ladeia-Andrade S, , 2006. A new challenge for malaria control in Brazil: asymptomatic Plasmodium infection–a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101: 229237.
  11. Peeters Grietens K, Xuan XN, Van Bortel W, Duc TN, Ribera JM, Ba Nhat T, Van KP, Le Xuan H, D'Alessandro U, Erhart A, , 2010. Low perception of malaria risk among the Ra-glai ethnic minority in south-central Vietnam: implications for forest malaria control. Malar J 9: 23.[Crossref]
  12. Plowe CV, Djimde A, Bouare M, Doumbo O, Wellems TE, , 1995. Pyrimethamine and proguanil resistance-conferring mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase: polymerase chain reaction methods for surveillance in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 565568.
  13. Rubio JM, Post RJ, van Leeuwen WM, Henry MC, Lindergard G, Hommel M, , 2002. Alternative polymerase chain reaction method to identify Plasmodium species in human blood samples: the semi-nested multiplex malaria PCR (SnM-PCR). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96 (Suppl): S199S204.[Crossref]
  14. Thang ND, Erhart A, Speybroeck N, Hung le X, Thuan le K, Hung CT, Ky PV, Coosemans M, D'Alessandro U, , 2008. Malaria in central Vietnam: analysis of risk factors by multivariate analysis and classification tree models. Malar J 7: 28.[Crossref]
  15. Okell LC, Ghani AC, Lyons E, Drakeley CJ, , 2009. Submicroscopic infection in Plasmodium falciparum-endemic populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 200: 15091517.[Crossref]
  16. Coleman RE, Sattabongkot J, Promstaporm S, Maneechai N, Tippayachai B, Kengluecha A, Rachapaew N, Zollner G, Miller RS, Vaughan JA, Thimasarn K, Khuntirat B, , 2006. Comparison of PCR and microscopy for the detection of asymptomatic malaria in a Plasmodium falciparum/vivax endemic area in Thailand. Malar J 5: 121.[Crossref]
  17. Oguike MC, Betson M, Burke M, Nolder D, Stothard JR, Kleinschmidt I, Proietti C, Bousema T, Ndounga M, Tanabe K, Ntege E, Culleton R, Sutherland CJ, , 2011. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri circulate simultaneously in African communities. Int J Parasitol 41: 677683.[Crossref]
  18. Proietti C, Pettinato DD, Kanoi BN, Ntege E, Crisanti A, Riley EM, Egwang TG, Drakeley C, Bousema T, , 2011. Continuing intense malaria transmission in northern Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 830837.[Crossref]
  19. Collins WE, Jeffery GM, , 2007. Plasmodium malariae: parasite and disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 20: 579592.[Crossref]
  20. Mayor A, Aponte JJ, Fogg C, Saúte F, Greenwood B, Dgedge M, Menendez C, Alonso PL, , 2007. The epidemiology of malaria in adults in a rural area of southern Mozambique. Malar J 6: 3.[Crossref]
  21. Doolan DL, Dobaño C, Baird JK, , 2009. Acquired immunity to malaria. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 1336.[Crossref]
  22. Baird JK, Purnomo Basri H, Bangs MJ, Andersen EM, Jones TR, Masbar S, Harjosuwarno S, Subianto B, Arbani PR, , 1993. Age-specific prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among six populations with limited histories of exposure to endemic malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49: 707719.
  23. Baird JK, Krisin Barcus MJ, Elyazar IR, Bangs MJ, Maguire JD, Fryauff DJ, Richie TL, Sekartuti Kalalo W, , 2003. Onset of clinical immunity to Plasmodium falciparum among Javanese migrants to Indonesian Papua. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 97: 557564.[Crossref]
  24. Erhart A, Ngo DT, Phan VK, Ta TT, Van Overmeir C, Speybroeck N, Obsomer V, Le XH, Le KT, Coosemans M, D'Alessandro U, , 2005. Epidemiology of forest malaria in central Vietnam: a large scale cross-sectional survey. Malar J 4: 58.[Crossref]
  25. Bousema JT, Schneider P, Gouagna LC, Drakeley CJ, Tostmann A, Houben R, Githure JI, Ord R, Sutherland CJ, Omar SA, Sauerwein RW, , 2006. Moderate effect of artemisinin-based combination therapy on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum . J Infect Dis 193: 11511159.[Crossref]
  26. Bousema T, Okell L, Shekalaghe S, Griffin JT, Omar S, Sawa P, Sutherland C, Sauerwein R, Ghani AC, Drakeley C, , 2010. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs. Malar J 9: 136.[Crossref]
  27. Van den Eede P, Van HN, Van Overmeir C, Vythilingam I, Duc TN, Hung le X, Manh HN, Anné J, D'Alessandro U, Erhart A, , 2009. Human Plasmodium knowlesi infections in young children in central Vietnam. Malar J 8: 249.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0047
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.12-0047
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 20 Jan 2012
  • Accepted : 11 Jun 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error