1921
Volume 87, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600–1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the (1947–1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; reinfestation (1971–1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of and dengue virus circulation (2000–2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0770
2012-10-03
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/87/4/584.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0770&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Gould EA, Solomon T, , 2008. Pathogenic flaviviruses. Lancet 371: 500509.[Crossref]
  2. George R, Lum LC, Gubler DJ, Kuno G, , 1997. Clinical spectrum of dengue infection. , eds. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. London: CAB International, 89113.
  3. World Health Organization, 2009. Dengue: Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, 1160. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2009/9789241547871_eng.pdf. Accessed October 2011.
  4. World Health Organization, 1997. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control, 158. Available at: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/dengue/Denguepublication/en/. Accessed August 2010.
  5. World Health Organization, 2011. Comprehensive Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever. Second edition. World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia, 36.
  6. Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Number of reported cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), Region of the Americas (by country and subregion) from 1995 through 2010. Available at: http://new.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=264&Itemid=363&lang=en. Accessed August 2012.
  7. San Martín JL, Brathwaite O, Zambrano B, Solórzano JO, Bouckenooghe A, Dayan GH, Guzmán MG, , 2010. The epidemiology of dengue in the Americas over the last three decades: a worrisome reality. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 128135.[Crossref]
  8. Gubler DJ, Gubler DJ, Kuno G, , 1997. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic: its history and resurgence as a global public health problem. , eds. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. London: CAB International, 122.
  9. Schneider J, Droll D, , 2001. A Time Line for Dengue in the Americas to December 31, 2000 and Noted First Occurrences. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. Available at: www.paho.org/English/HCP/HCT/VBD/dengue_finaltime.doc. Accessed May 2012.
  10. Mc Sherry JA, , 1982. Some medical aspects of the Darien scheme: was it dengue? Scott Med J 27: 183184.[Crossref]
  11. Halstead SB, Pasvol G, , 2008. Dengue: overview and history. , ed. Tropical Medicine: Science and Practice. London: Imperial College Press, 128.
  12. Rush AB, , 1789. An account of the bilious remitting fever, as it appeared in Philadelphia in the summer and autumn of the year 1780. Medical Inquiries and Observations. Philadelphia, PA: Prichard and Hall, 104117.
  13. Guzmán MG, Kourí G, , 2003. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: lessons and challenges. J Clin Virol 27: 113.[Crossref]
  14. Halstead SB, , 2006. Dengue in the Americas and Southeast Asia: do they differ? Rev Panam Salud Publica 20: 407415.[Crossref]
  15. Ehrenkranz NJ, Ventura AK, Cuadrado RR, Pond WL, Porter JE, , 1971. Pandemic dengue in Caribbean countries and the southern United States–past, present and potential problems. N Engl J Med 285: 14601469.[Crossref]
  16. Forry S, , 1842. Remarks on epidemic cholera, inebriety, Hemeralopia, colica saturnine and dengue. Am Med Sci 3: 307324.
  17. Hays I, , 1828. On dengue. Am J Med Sci 3: 233242.
  18. Carey DE, , 1971. Chikungunya and dengue: a case of mistaken identity? J Hist Med 26: 243262.
  19. Muñoz Bernal JA, , 1828. Memoria sobre la epidemia que ha sufrido esta ciudad, nombrada vulgarmente el dengue. Oficina del Gobierno y Capitanía General. Habana 1: 26.
  20. Guiteras J, Cartaya JT, , 1906. El dengue en Cuba: su importancia y su diagnóstico con la fiebre amarilla. Rev Med Trop Habana 7: 3742.
  21. Fenner ED, , 1851. Special report on the fevers of New Orleans in the year 1850. South Med Rep 2: 7999.
  22. Dickson SH, Wragg WT, Campbell HF, , 1851. A descriptive account of the epidemic fever called dengue, as it prevailed at Charleston, SC, and Augusta GA, during the summer of 1850. Trans Am M Assoc 4: 211225.
  23. Arnold RD, , 1858. Dengue, or break-bone fever, as it appeared in Savannah in the summer and fall of 1850. Savannah J Med 1: 233248.
  24. Bemiss SM, , 1880. Dengue. New Orleans Med Surg J 8: 501512.
  25. Falligant LA, , 1881. The dengue fever of 1880 in Savannah, Georgia. North Am J Homoeopath 11: 529558.
  26. Prioleau JF, , 1881. The epidemic of dengue – as it prevailed the city of Charleston, SC, 1881. Rep Board Health S Carolina Charleston 2: 197212.
  27. Reis TJ, , 1896. A febre dengue in Curityba. Gazeta Medica da Bahia 97: 163266.
  28. Benavente D, , 1899. Chronicle. Rev Med Chil 18: 5764.
  29. Astaburuaga L, , 1890. Epidemia de fiebre dengue en Iquique. Bol Med Marzo-Abril: 5354.
  30. Editorial, 1885. The epidemic of dengue in Texas. Daniel's Med J 1: 190194.
  31. Menger R, , 1897. Dengue fever in San Antonio: yellow fever compared. Tex Med News 7: 15.
  32. Diamond IB, , 1898. The epidemic of dengue at Houston, Texas: clinical report of cases. Med Newsl (Lond) 72: 329331.
  33. Rerick RH, , 1902. Memoirs of Florida. Volume 2. Atlanta, GA: Southern Historical Association, 137138.
  34. Delfin M, Coronado TV, , 1897. Dengue en la Habana en 1897. Cron Med Quir de la Habana 23: 185192.
  35. 1883. Last year's epidemic of dengue in Bermuda. NY Med J 38: 322323.
  36. Carpenter DN, Sutton RL, , 1905. Dengue in the Isthmian Canal Zone: including a report on the laboratory findings. J Am Med Assoc 44: 214216.[Crossref]
  37. Beverley EP, Lynn WJ, , 1912. The reappearance of dengue on the Isthmus of Panama. Proc Med Ass Isthmian Canal Zone 5: 3242.
  38. Lane FF, , 1918. A clinical study of 100 cases of dengue at St. Thomas, V.I. US Naval Med Bull 12: 615623.
  39. King WW, , 1917. The epidemic of dengue in the Porto Rico epidemic of 1915. New Orleans Med Surg J 69: 564571.
  40. King WW, , 1917. The clinical types of dengue in the Porto Rico epidemic of 1915. New Orleans Med Surg J 69: 572589.
  41. Mariano F, , 1916. A dengue. Considerações a respeito de sua incursão no Rio Grande do Sul, em 1916. Arch Bras Med 8: 271277.
  42. Gaudino NM, , 1916. Dengue. Rev Sanid Milit Argent 15: 617627.
  43. Levy MD, , 1920. Dengue: observations on a recent epidemic. Med Rec 97: 10401042.
  44. Rice L, , 1922. Dengue fever: preliminary report of an epidemic at Galveston. Texas J Med 18: 217218.
  45. Rice L, , 1923. A clinical report of the Galveston epidemic in 1922. Am J Trop Med Hyg 3: 7390.
  46. Scott LC, , 1923. Dengue fever in Louisiana. JAMA 80: 387393.[Crossref]
  47. Myers WH, , 1923. The epidemic of dengue fever in Savannah in 1922. J Med Assoc Ga 12: 318321.
  48. Pedro A, , 1923. The dengue Nichteroy. Brazil Medico 37: 173177.
  49. Mac Donell GN, , 1935. The dengue epidemic in Miami. J Fla Med Assoc 21: 392395.
  50. Griffitts THD, , 1935. Dengue in Florida, 1934, and its significance. J Fla Med Assoc 21: 395397.
  51. 1941. Prevalence of disease: United States: reports from states for week ended November 29, 1941. Public Health Rep 56: 23502361.
  52. Fairchild LM, , 1945. Dengue-like fever on the Isthmus of Panama. Amer J Trop Med 25: 397401.
  53. Rosen L, , 1958. Observations on the epidemiology of dengue in Panama. Am J Hyg 68: 4558.
  54. Pittaluga G, , 1945. Sobre un brote de dengue en la Habana. Rev Med Trop y Parasitol Bact Clin y Lab 11: 13.
  55. Dias-Rivera RS, , 1946. A bizarre type of seven day fever clinically indistinguishable from dengue. Bol Asoc Med P R 38: 7580.
  56. Dominici SA, , 1946. Acerca de la epidemia actual de dengue en Caracas. Gac Med Caracas 7: 3037.
  57. Sabin AB, Schlesinger RW, , 1945. Production of immunity to dengue with virus modified by propagation in mice. Science 101: 640642.[Crossref]
  58. Hammon WM, Rudnick A, Sather GE, , 1960. Viruses associated with epidemic hemorrhagic fevers of the Philippines and Thailand. Science 131: 11021103.[Crossref]
  59. Hotta S, Kimura R, , 1952. Experimental studies on dengue I. Isolation, identification and modification of the virus. J Infect Dis 90: 19.[Crossref]
  60. Kuno G, , 2009. Emergence of the Severe Syndrome and mortality associated with dengue and dengue-like illness: historical records (1890–1950) and their compatibility with current hypotheses on the shift of the disease manifestations. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 186201.[Crossref]
  61. Gorgas W, , 1905. Sanitary conditions as encountered in Cuba and Panama and what is being done to render canal zone healthy. Med Rec 10.
  62. Finlay C, , 1881. El mosquito hipotéticamente considerado como agente de transmisión de la fiebre amarilla. An Acad Cien Med (Havana) 18: 147169.
  63. Reed W, Carrol J, Agramonte A, Lazear JW, , 1900. The etiology of yellow fever – preliminary note. Phila M J 6: 790796.
  64. Severo OP, , 1955. Eradication of the Aedes aegypti Mosquito from the Americas. Yellow fever, a symposium in commemoration of Carlos Juan Finlay, 1955. Available at: http://jdc.jefferson.edu/yellow_fever_symposium/6. Accessed June 2012.
  65. Pan American Health Organization, 1942. Pan American Sanitary Conference. Resolution CSP 11.R1 Sept. 1942 Pub. 198, 3–4. Available at: http://www.paho.org/english/gov/csp/ftcsp_11.htm. Accessed August 2011.
  66. Pan American Health Organization, 1947. I Direct Council of the Pan American Health Organization. Resolution CD1.R1. Continental Aedes aegypti eradication. Sept–Oct 1947 Pub. 247, 3. Available at: http://www.paho.org/English/GOV/CD/ftcd_1.htm#R1. Accessed August 2011.
  67. Pan American Health Organization, 1997. The feasibility of eradicating Aedes aegypti in the Americas. Rev Panam Salud Publica 1: 381388.[Crossref]
  68. Anderson C, Downs W, , 1956. Isolation of dengue virus from a human being in Trinidad. Science 124: 224225.[Crossref]
  69. Griffiths BB, Grant LS, Minott OD, Belle EA, , 1968. An epidemic of dengue-like illness in Jamaica—1963. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17: 584589.
  70. Neff J, Morris L, González-Alcover R, Coleman PH, Lyss SB, Negron H, , 1967. Dengue fever in a Puerto Rican community. Am J Epidemiol 86: 162184.[Crossref]
  71. Pan American Health Organization, 1965. Epidemiological notes. Pan Am Health Organ Wkly Epidemiol Rep 37: 116121.
  72. Briceno-Rossi AL, , 1964. Recientes brotes de dengue en Venezuela. Gac Med Caracas 72: 431434.
  73. Ventura AK, Hewitt CM, , 1970. Recovery of dengue-2 and dengue-3 viruses from man in Jamaica. Am J Trop Med Hyg 19: 712715.
  74. Centers for Disease Control, 1971. Dengue – Puerto Rico, 1970. MMWR 20: 7475.
  75. Likosky WH, Calisher CH, Michelson AL, Correa-Coronas R, Henderson BE, Feldman RA, , 1973. An epidemiologic study of dengue type 2 in Puerto Rico, 1969. Am J Epidemiol 97: 264275.[Crossref]
  76. Jonkers AH, James F, Ali S, , 1969. Dengue fever in the Caribbean 1968–69. West Indian Med J 18: 126.
  77. Llopis A, Travieso R, Addimandi V, , 1979. Dengue in Venezuela. Pan American Health Organization. Dengue in the Caribbean, 1977. Washington, DC: PAHO, 8386.
  78. Groot H, , 1975. Dengue fever: present and potential problems in Colombia. Ind Trop Health 8: 94103.
  79. Morales A, Groot H, Russel PK, McCown JM, , 1973. Recovery dengue-2 virus from Aedes aegypti in Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 22: 785787.
  80. Groot H, Morales A, Romero M, Vidales H, Lesmes-Donaldson C, Márquez G, Escobar de Calvache D, Sáenz MO, , 1979. Recent outbreaks of dengue in Colombia. Pan American Health Organization. Dengue in the Caribbean, 1977. Washington, DC: PAHO, 3139.
  81. Pan American Health Organization, 1979. Dengue in the Caribbean, 1977. Sci Publ- Pan Am Health Organ 375: 1182.
  82. Gubler DJ, Meltzer M, , 1999. Impact on the dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever on the developing world. Adv Virus Res 53: 3570.[Crossref]
  83. Kourí GP, Guzmán MG, Bravo JR, Triana C, , 1989. Dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome: lessons from the Cuban epidemic, 1981. Bull World Health Organ 67: 375380.
  84. Guzmán MG, Kourí G, Morier L, Fernández A, , 1984. A study of fatal hemorrhagic dengue cases in Cuba 1981. Bull PAHO 18: 213220.
  85. Guzmán MG, , 2012. Treinta años después de la epidemia Cubana de dengue hemmorrágico en 1981. Rev Cubana Med Trop 64: 514.
  86. Pinheiro FP, Corber SJ, , 1997. Global situation of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, and its emergence in the Americas. World Health Stat Q 50: 161169.
  87. Gubler DJ, , 1987. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas. P R Health Sci J 6: 107111.
  88. Loroño Pino MA, Farfán Ale JA, Rosado Paredes EP, Kuno G, Gubler DJ, , 1993. Epidemic dengue-4 in the Yucatán, Mexico, 1984. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 35: 449455.[Crossref]
  89. Pan American Health Organization, 1993. Dengue in the Americas: an update. Epidemiol Bull 14: 13.
  90. Osanai CH, Travassos da Rosa AP, Tang AT, do Amaral AS, Passos AD, Tauil PL, , 1983. Outbreak of dengue in Boa Vista, Roraima: preliminary report. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 25: 5354.
  91. Schatzmayr HG, Nogueira RM, Travassos da Rosa AP, , 1986. An outbreak of dengue virus at Rio de Janeiro. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 81: 245246.[Crossref]
  92. Nogueira RM, Schatzmayr HG, Miagostovich MP, Farias MF, Farias Filho JD, , 1989. Virological study of a dengue type 1 epidemic at Rio de Janeiro. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 83: 219225.[Crossref]
  93. Miagostovich MP, Nogueira RM, Cavalcanti SMB, Marzochi KBF, Schatzmayr HG, , 1993. Dengue epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: virological and epidemiological aspects. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 35: 149154.[Crossref]
  94. Moraes LTF, , 2003. Dengue in Brazil: past, present and future perspective. Dengue Bull 27: 2532.
  95. Siqueira JB, Turchi Martelli CM, Coelho EG, da Rocha Simplicio AC, Hatch DL, , 2005. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, Brazil, 1981–2002. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 4853.[Crossref]
  96. Pan American Health Organization, 1990. Dengue hemorrhagic fever in Venezuela. Epidemiol Bull 11: 79.
  97. Lewis JA, Chang GJ, Lanciotti RS, Kinney RM, Mayer LW, Trent DW, , 1993. Phylogenetic relationships of dengue-2. Virology 197: 216224.[Crossref]
  98. Rico-Hesse R, Harrison L, Salas R, Tovar D, Nisalak A, Ramos C, Boshell J, de Mesa M, Nogueira R, Travassos de Rosa A, , 1997. Origins of dengue type 2 viruses associated with increased pathogenicity in the Americas. Virology 230: 244251.[Crossref]
  99. Nogueira RMR, Miagostovich MP, Lampe E, Souza RW, Zagne SMO, Schatzmayr HG, , 1993. Dengue epidemic in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1990–1: co-circulation of dengue 1 and dengue 2 serotypes. Epidemiol Infect 11: 163170.[Crossref]
  100. Nogueira RM, Miagostovich MP, Lampe E, Schatzmayr HG, , 1990. Isolation of dengue virus type 2 in Rio de Janeiro. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 85: 253.[Crossref]
  101. Vasconcelos PF, de Menezes DB, Melo LP, Pessoa P, Rodrigues SG, Travassos da Rosa E, Timbó MJ, Coelho CB, Montenegro F, Travassos da Rosa J, Andrade F, Travassos da Rosa A, , 1995. A large epidemic of dengue fever with dengue hemorrhagic cases in Ceará State, Brazil, 1994. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 37: 253255.[Crossref]
  102. Vasconcelos PF, Travassos da Rosa ES, Travassos da Rosa JF, Freiras RB, Rodrigues SG, Travassos da Rosa AP, , 1993. Epidemia de febre clássica de dengue causada pelo sorotipe 2 em Araguaina, Tocantins, Brasil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 35: 141148.[Crossref]
  103. Nogueira RM, Zagne SM, Martins IS, , 1991. Dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) caused by serotype 2 in Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86: 69274.
  104. Nogueira RM, Miagostovich MP, Shcatzmayr HG, Moraes GC, Cardoso MA, Ferreira J, Cerqueira V, Pereira M, , 1995. Dengue type 2 outbreak in the south of the state of Bahia, Brazil: laboratorial and epidemiological studies. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 37: 507510.[Crossref]
  105. Watts DM, Porter KR, Putvatana P, Vasquez B, Calampa C, Hayes CG, Halstead SB, , 1999. Failure of secondary infection with American genotype dengue 2 to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Lancet 354: 14311434.[Crossref]
  106. Guzmán MG, Vázquez S, Martínez E, Alvarez M, Rodríguez R, Kourí G, de los Reyes J, Acevedo F, , 1997. Dengue in Nicaragua, 1994: reintroduction of serotype 3 in the Americas. Pan Am J Publ Health 1: 194199.[Crossref]
  107. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1995. Dengue type 3 infection – Nicaragua and Panama, October–November 1994. MMWR 44: 2124.
  108. Figueroa R, Ramos C, , 2000. Dengue virus serotype 3 circulation in endemic countries and its reappearance in America. Arch Med Res 31: 429430.[Crossref]
  109. Pan American Health Organization, 1997. Re-emergence of dengue in the Americas. Epidemiol Bull 18: 16.
  110. Nogueira RM, Miagostovich MP, Filippis AM, Pereira MA, Schatzmayr HG, , 2001. Dengue virus type 3 in Rio de Janeiro Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96: 925926.[Crossref]
  111. Uzcategui NY, Comach G, Camacho D, Salcedo M, Cabello de Quintana M, Jiménez M, Sierra G, Uzcategui RC, James WS, Turner S, Holmes EC, Gould EA, , 2003. Molecular epidemiology of dengue virus type 3 in Venezuela. J Gen Virol 84: 15691575.[Crossref]
  112. Ocazionez RE, Cortes FM, Villar LA, Gómez SY, , 2006. Temporal distribution of dengue virus serotypes in Colombian endemic area and dengue incidence. Re-introduction of dengue-3 associated to mild febrile illness and primary infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 101: 725731.[Crossref]
  113. XXXIX Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization, 1996. Resolution CD39.R11. Available at: http://www.paho.org/english/gov/cd/ftcd_39.htm. Accessed August 2011.
  114. Guzmán MG, Kourí G, Valdes L, Bravo J, Alvarez M, Vázques S, Delgado I, Halstead SB, , 2000. Epidemiologic studies on dengue in Santiago de Cuba, 1997. Am J Epidemiol 152: 793799.[Crossref]
  115. Avilés G, Rangeon G, Baroni P, Paz V, Monteros M, Sartini JL, Enría D, , 2000. Epidemia por virus dengue-2 en Salta, Argentina, 1988. Medicina (B Aires) 60: 875879.
  116. Masuh H, , 2008. Re-emergence of dengue in Argentina: historical development and future challenges. Dengue Bull 32: 4454.
  117. Regato M, Recaray R, Moratorio G, de Mora D, Garcia-Aguirre L, González M, Mosquera C, Alava A, Fajardo A, Alvarez M, D'Andrea L, Dubra A, Martínez M, Kan B, Cristina J, , 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS5 gene of dengue virus isolated in Ecuador. Virus Res 132: 197200.[Crossref]
  118. Ministerio de Salud Pública y Bienestar Social, 2012. History of Dengue in Paraguay. Available at: http://dengue.mspbs.gov.py/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=86&Itemid=135. Accessed June 14, 2012.
  119. Vargas MC, Osores FP, Suarez LO, Soto LA, Pardo KR, , 2005. Dengue Clásico y hemorrágico: una enfermedad reemergente y emergente en el Perú. Rev Med Hered 16: 120140.[Crossref]
  120. Ministerio de Salud del Perú, Oficina General de Epidemiología, 2004. Boletín Epidemiológico Semana del 12 al 18 de Diciembre 13: 1. Available at: http://www.dge.gob.pe/boletines/2004/50.pdf. Accessed June 11, 2012.
  121. Nogueira RM, Shcatzmayr HG, de Filippis AM, dos Santos FB, da Cunha RV, Coelho JO, de Souza LJ, Guimaraes FR, de Araújo ES, De Simone TS, Baran M, Teixeira G, Jr Miagostovich MP, , 2005. Dengue type 3, Brazil 2002. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 13761381.[Crossref]
  122. Melo PR, Reis EA, Ciuffo IA, Góes M, Blanton MR, Reis MG, , 2007. The dynamics of dengue virus serotype 3 introduction and dispersion in the state of Bahia, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102: 905912.[Crossref]
  123. Cordeiro MT, Schatzmayr HG, Nogueira RM, Oliveira VF, Melo WT, Carvalho EF, , 2007. Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the State of Pernambuco, 1995–2006. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 40: 605611.[Crossref]
  124. González I, Sáenz E, , 2007. La confirmación de dengue por laboratorio en Costa Rica 1993–2006. Resultados y consideraciones generales. Boletín INCIENSA (Instituto Costarricense de Investigación y Enseñanza en Nutrición y Salud) 19: 25.
  125. Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, 2007. Dengue Epidemic Report January to December 2007. Available at: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arquivos/pdf/boletim_dengue_010208.pdf. Accessed August 2011.
  126. Ministério de Saúde, Secretaría de Vigilância em Saúde, 2008. Dengue Epidemic Report January to November, 2008. Available at: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arquivos/pdf/boletim_dengue_janeiro_novembro.pdf. Accessed August 2011.
  127. Cavalcanti LP, Vilar D, Souza-Santos R, Teixeira MG, , 2011. Change in age pattern of persons with dengue, northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 17: 132134.[Crossref]
  128. Seijo A, , 2011. Dengue 2009: chronology of an epidemic (comments). Arch Argent Pediatr 107: 387389.
  129. Vázquez-Pichardo M, Rosales-Jiménez C, Núñez-León A, Rivera-Osorio P, De la Cruz-Hernández S, Ruiz-López A, González-Mateos A, López-Martínez I, Rodríguez-Martínez JC, López-Gatell H, Alpuche-Almeida C, , 2011. Serotipos de dengue en México durante 2009 y 2010. Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex 68: 103110.
  130. Secretaría de Salud de México, Centro Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica y Control de Enfermedades (CENAVECE), 2012. Dengue: Panorama 2009. Available at: http://www.dgepi.salud.gob.mx/2010/plantilla/intd_dengue.html. Accessed June 2012.
  131. Gutiérrez G, Standish K, Narváez F, Pérez MA, Saborio S, Elizondo D, Ortega O, Núñez A, Kuan G, Balmaseda A, Harris E, , 2011. Unusual dengue virus 3 epidemic in Nicaragua, 2009. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1394.[Crossref]
  132. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. Locally acquired dengue – Key West, Florida, 2009–2010. MMWR 59: 577581.
  133. Figueiredo RM, Naveca FG, Bastos MS, Melo MM, Viana SS, Mourão MP, Alves Costa CA, Farias IP, , 2008. Dengue virus type 4, Manaus, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 667669.[Crossref]
  134. Secretaría de Salud de Honduras, Dirección General de Vigilancia de la Salud, 2010. Boletin de Información Semanal sobre Dengue, Boletín 25 Semana Epidemiológica 52. Available at: http://www.salud.gob.hn/documentos/dgvs/Boletines%20Dengue/BOLETIN%20DENGUE%20No%2025.pdf. Accessed May 2012.
  135. Pan American Health Organization, 2001. 43rd Directing Council, 53rd Session of the Regional Committee. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Resolution CD43.R4. Washington, DC, September 24–28, 2001. Available at: http://www.paho.org/english/gov/cd/cd43.r4-e.pdf. Accessed August 2011.
  136. San Martín JL, Brathwaite-Dick O, , 2007. Integrated strategy for dengue prevention and control in the region of the Americas. Rev Panam Salud Publica 21: 5563.[Crossref]
  137. PAHO, 2003. Board of Directors. Regional Committee Meeting. Resolution CD44.R9. Dengue. Washington, DC: September 2003. Available at: http://www.paho.org/spanish/gov/cd/cd44-r9-s.pdf. Accessed August 2011.
  138. Pan American Health Organization, 2007. Pan American Sanitary Conference. Resolution CSP27.R15. Prevention and Control of Dengue in the Américas. October 1–5, 2007.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0770
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0770
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Dec 2011
  • Accepted : 13 Jul 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error