Volume 86, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Intraocular gnathostomiasis is a rare parasitic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of spiruroid nematode spp. seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a food-borne zoonosis caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, all of which are known to harbor advanced third-stage larvae of spp. To date, 74 cases of intraocular gnathostomiasis have been reported from 12 different countries. Only four countries have reported more than 10 cases each, and India shares the rare distinction of being one of them, with 14 cases. Surprisingly, not a single case of cutaneous gnanthostomiasis has ever been reported from India. We present one such case of intraocular gnathostomiasis in a 41-year-old male who presented with an actively motile worm attached to the iris, and we review the pertinent literature of all such cases reported from India.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Herman JS, Chiodini PL, , 2009. Gnathostomiasis, another emerging imported disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 484492.[Crossref]
  2. Daengsvang S, , 1981. Gnathostomiasis in southeast Asia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 12: 319332.
  3. McCarthy J, Moore TA, , 2000. Emerging helminth zoonoses. Int J Parasitol 30: 13511360.[Crossref]
  4. Rusnak JM, Lucey DR, , 1993. Clinical gnathostomiasis: case report and review of the English-language literature. Clin Infect Dis 16: 3350.[Crossref]
  5. Boongird P, Phuapradit P, Siridej N, Chirachariyavej T, Chuahirun S, Vejjajiva A, , 1977. Neurological manifestations of gnathostomiasis. J Neurol Sci 31: 279291.[Crossref]
  6. Punyagupta S, Bunnag T, Juttijudata P, , 1990. Eosinophilic meningitis in Thailand. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 162 patients with myeloencephalitis probably caused by Gnathostoma spinigerum . J Neurol Sci 96: 241256.[Crossref]
  7. Nawa Y, Katchanov J, Yoshikawa M, Rojekittikhun W, Dekumyoy P, Kusolusuk T, Wattanakulpanich D, , 2010. Ocular gnathostomiasis: a comprehensive review. J Trop Med Parasitol 33: 7786.
  8. Basak SK, Sinha TK, Bhattacharya D, Hazra TK, Parikh S, , 2004. Intravitreal live Gnathostoma spinigerum . Indian J Ophthalmol 52: 5758.
  9. Rhitthibaed C, Daengsvang S, , 1937. A case of blindness caused by Gnathstoma spinigerum . J Med Assoc Thai 19: 840845.
  10. Sen K, Ghose N, , 1945. Ocular gnathostomiasis. Br J Ophthalmol 29: 618626.[Crossref]
  11. Guitierrez Y, , 2000. Diagnostic Pathology of Parasitic Infections with Clinical Correlations, 2nd ed. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  12. Seal GN, Gupta AK, Das MK, , 1969. Intra-ocular gnathostomiasis. Indian J Ophthalmol 17: 109113.
  13. Biswas J, Gopal L, Sharma T, Badrinath SS, , 1994. Intraocular Gnathostoma spinigerum. Clinicopathologic study of two cases with review of literature. Retina 14: 438444.[Crossref]
  14. Kannan KA, Vasantha K, Venugopal M, , 1999. Intraocular gnathostomiasis. Indian J Ophthalmol 47: 252253.
  15. Bhattacharjee H, Das D, Medhi J, , 2007. Intravitreal gnathostomiasis and review of literature. Retina 27: 6773.[Crossref]
  16. Barua P, Hazarika NK, Barua N, Barua CK, Choudhury B, , 2007. Gnathostomiasis of the anterior chamber. Indian J Med Microbiol 25: 276278.[Crossref]
  17. Tiwari S, Chayani N, Rautaraya B, , 2009. Intraocular Gnathostoma spinigerum: a case report. Cases J 22: 93709372.[Crossref]
  18. Bhende M, Biswas J, Gopal L, , 2005. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in the diagnosis and management of intraocular gnathostomiasis. Am J Ophthalmol 140: 140142.[Crossref]
  19. Rao VA, Pravin T, Parija SC, , 1999. Intracameral gnathostomiasins: a first case report from Pondicherry. J Commun Dis 31: 197198.
  20. Sekhar HS, Srinivasa H, Batru RR, Mathai E, Shariff S, Macaden RS, , 2000. Human ocular dirofilariasis in Kerala Southern India. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 43: 7779.
  21. Natesh S, K H, Nair U, Nair K, , 2010. Subretinal worm and repeat laser photocoagulation. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol 17: 183185.[Crossref]
  22. Ittyerah TP, , 1990. Nematode in the retina. Indian J Ophthalmol 38: 178179.
  23. Nontasut P, Claesson BA, Dekumyoy P, Pakdee W, Chullawichit S, , 2005. Double-dose ivermetcin vs albendazole for treatment of gnathostomiasis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36: 650652.

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental movie file 2

Supplemental movie file 1

  • Received : 18 Nov 2011
  • Accepted : 13 Jan 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error