1921
Volume 87, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0715
2012-09-05
2017-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/87/3/394.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0715&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Rosa G, Clasen T, , 2010. Estimating the scope of household water treatment in low- and medium-income countries. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 289300.[Crossref]
  2. Yang H, Wright JA, Gundry SW, , 2012. Household water treatment in China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 554555.[Crossref]
  3. Rosa G, Clasen T, , 2012. In response. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 556.[Crossref]
  4. Sobsey MD, , 2002. Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water Supply. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  5. Sodha SV, Menon M, Trivedi K, Ati A, Figueroa ME, Ainslie R, Wannemuehler K, Quick R, , 2011. Microbiologic effectiveness of boiling and safe water storage in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. J Water Health 9: 577585.[Crossref]
  6. Clasen T, McLaughlin C, Nayaar N, Boisson S, Gupta R, Desai D, Shah N, , 2008. Microbiological effectiveness and cost of disinfecting water by boiling in semi-urban India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 407413.
  7. Clasen TF, Thao do H, Boisson S, Shipin O, , 2008. Microbiological effectiveness and cost of boiling to disinfect drinking water in rural Vietnam. Environ Sci Technol 42: 42554260.[Crossref]
  8. Luby SP, Syed AH, Atiullah N, Faizan MK, Fisher-Hoch S, , 2000. Limited effectiveness of home drinking water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Infect Dis 4: 37.[Crossref]
  9. Psutka R, Peletz R, Michelo S, Kelly P, Clasen T, , 2011. Assessing the microbiological performance and potential cost of boiling drinking water in urban Zambia. Environ Sci Technol 45: 60956101.[Crossref]
  10. Gupta SK, Suantio A, Gray A, Widyastuti E, Jain N, Rolos R, Hoekstra RM, Quick R, , 2007. Factors associated with E. coli contamination of household drinking water among tsunami and earthquake survivors, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 11581162.
  11. Brown J, Clasen T, , 2012. High adherence is necessary to realize health gains from water quality interventions. PLoS ONE 7: e36735. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036735.[Crossref]
  12. Arnold B, Colford J, , 2007. Treating water with chlorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 354364.
  13. Enger KS, Nelson KL, Clasen T, Rose JB, Eisenberg JN, , 2012. Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries. Environ Sci Technol 46: 51605167.[Crossref]
  14. Waddington H, Snilstveit White H, Fewtrell L, , 2009. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Interventions to Combat Childhood Diarrhoea in Developing Countries. Delhi, India: International Initiative for Impact Evaluation.
  15. Hunter PR, Zmirou-Navier D, Hartemann P, , 2009. Estimating the impact on health of poor reliability of drinking water interventions in developing countries. Sci Total Environ 407: 26212624.[Crossref]
  16. National Institute of Statistics (NIS), Directorate General for Health, ICF Macro, 2011. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Calverton, MD: National Institute of Statistics, Directorate General for Health, and ICF Macro.
  17. Manafi M, Kneifel W, , 1989. A combined-fluorogenic medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E. coli in water. Zbl Hyg Umweltmed 189: 225234.
  18. Manafi M, Kneifel W, Bascomb S, , 1991. Fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates used in bacterial diagnostics. Microbiol Rev 55: 335348.
  19. Geissler K, Manafi M, Amorós I, Alonso JL, , 2000. Quantitative determination of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in marine waters with chromogenic and fluorogenic media. J Appl Microbiol 88: 280285.[Crossref]
  20. USEPA, 2002. Method 1604: Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water by Membrane Filtration Using a Simultaneous Detection Technique (MI Medium). Publication EPA-821-R-02–024, Washington, DC: USEPA Office of Water.
  21. WHO/UNICEF, 2006. Core Questions on Drinking Water and Sanitation for Household Surveys. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  22. Moser S, Heri S, Mosler HJ, , 2005. Determinants of the Diffusion of SODIS. A Qualitative Field Study in Bolivia. Summary Report. Dubendorf, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology (Eawag).
  23. Gilman RH, Marquis GS, Ventura G, Campos M, Spira W, Diaz F, , 1993. Water cost and availability: key determinants of family hygiene in a Peruvian shantytown. Am J Public Health 83: 15541558.[Crossref]
  24. Quick RE, Kimura A, Thevos A, Tembo M, Shamputa I, Hutwagner L, , 2002. Diarrhoea prevention through household-level water disinfection and safe storage in Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 584589.
  25. Reller ME, Mendoza CE, Lopez MB, Alvarez M, Hoekstra RM, Olson CA, Baier KG, , 2003. A randomized controlled trial of household-based flocculant-disinfectant drinking water treatment for diarrhea prevention in rural Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 411419.
  26. Sobsey MD, Stauber CE, Casanova LM, Brown J, Elliott MA, , 2008. Point of use household drinking water filtration: a practical, effective solution for providing access to safe drinking water in the developing world. Environ Sci Technol 42: 42614267.[Crossref]
  27. Rosa G, Miller L, Clasen T, , 2010. Microbiological effectiveness of disinfecting water by boiling in rural Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 473477.[Crossref]
  28. Desmarais TR, Solo-Gabriele HM, Palmer CJ, , 2002. Influence of soil on fecal indicator organisms in a tidally influenced subtropical environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 68: 11651172.[Crossref]
  29. Wright J, Gundry S, Conroy R, , 2004. Household drinking water in developing countries: a systematic review of microbiological contamination between source and point-of-use. Trop Med Int Health 9: 106117.[Crossref]
  30. Jensen P, Ensink J, Jayasinghe G, van der Hoek W, Cairncross S, Dalsgaard A, , 2002. Domestic transmission routes of pathogens: the problem of in-house contamination of drinking water during storage in developing countries. Trop Med Int Health 7: 604609.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0715
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0715
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 Nov 2011
  • Accepted : 21 Apr 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error