Volume 87, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



species of the subgenus are responsible for most cases of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis. However, little is known about the vectors involved in disease transmission in the Amazon regions of Peru. We used a novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess infections in phlebotomines collected in rural areas of Madre de Dios, Peru. A total of 1,299 non-blood fed female sand flies from 33 species were captured by using miniature CDC light traps. was the most abundant species (63%) in this area. Seven of 164 pools were positive by PCR for by kinetoplast DNA. The real-time PCR identified four pools as positive for () and () . The minimum infection prevalence for was estimated to be 0.6% (95% confidence interval = 0.20–1.42%). Further studies are needed to assess the importance of in the transmission of New World tegumentary leishmaniasis in hyperendemic areas of Peru.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, Brooker S, , 2007. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 581596.[Crossref]
  2. Banuls AL, Hide M, Prugnolle F, , 2007. Leishmania and the leishmaniases: a parasite genetic update and advances in taxonomy, epidemiology and pathogenicity in humans. Adv Parasitol 64: 1109.[Crossref]
  3. Lucas CM, Franke ED, Cachay MI, Tejada A, Cruz ME, Kreutzer RD, Barker DC, McCann SH, Watts DM, , 1998. Geographic distribution and clinical description of leishmaniasis cases in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 312317.
  4. Killick-Kendrick R, , 1990. Phlebotomine vectors of the leishmaniases: a review. Med Vet Entomol 4: 124.[Crossref]
  5. Peruvian Ministry of Health, 2010. General Epidemiology Directorate Report. Available at: http://www.dge.gob.pe/salasit.php.
  6. Kato H, Gomez EA, Caceres AG, Uezato H, Mimori T, Hashiguchi Y, , 2010. Molecular epidemiology for vector research on leishmaniasis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7: 814826.[Crossref]
  7. Young DG, Duncan MA, , 1994. Guide to the Identification and Geographic Distribution of Lutzomyia Sand Flies in Mexico, the West Indies, Central and South America (Diptera: Psychodidae). Gainesville, FL: Associated Publishers.
  8. Caceres AG, Villaseca P, Dujardin JC, Banuls AL, Inga R, Lopez M, Arana M, Le Ray D, Arevalo J, , 2004. Epidemiology of Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis: incrimination of Lutzomyia ayacuchensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) as a vector of Leishmania in geographically isolated, upland valleys of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 607612.
  9. Kato H, Caceres AG, Gomez EA, Mimori T, Uezato H, Marco JD, Barroso PA, Iwata H, Hashiguchi Y, , 2008. Molecular mass screening to incriminate sand fly vectors of Andean-type cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ecuador and Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 719721.
  10. Davies CR, Fernandez M, Paz L, Roncal N, Llanos-Cuentas A, , 1993. Lutzomyia verrucarum can transmit Leishmania peruviana, the aetiological agent of Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87: 603606.[Crossref]
  11. Perez JE, Veland N, Espinosa D, Torres K, Ogusuku E, Llanos-Cuentas A, Gamboa D, Arevalo J, , 2007. Isolation and molecular identification of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana from naturally infected Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Peruvian Andes. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102: 655658.[Crossref]
  12. Paiva BR, Secundino NF, Nascimento JC, Pimenta PF, Galati EA, Junior HF, Malafronte RS, , 2006. Detection and identification of Leishmania species in field-captured phlebotomine sandflies based on mini-exon gene PCR. Acta Trop 99: 252259.[Crossref]
  13. Schonian G, Kuhls K, Mauricio IL, , 2011. Molecular approaches for a better understanding of the epidemiology and population genetics of Leishmania . Parasitology 138: 405425.[Crossref]
  14. Tsukayama P, Lucas C, Bacon DJ, , 2009. Typing of four genetic loci discriminates among closely related species of New World Leishmania . Int J Parasitol 39: 355362.[Crossref]
  15. Arevalo J, Ramirez L, Adaui V, Zimic M, Tulliano G, Miranda-Verastegui C, Lazo M, Loayza-Muro R, De Doncker S, Maurer A, Chappuis F, Dujardin JC, Llanos-Cuentas A, , 2007. Influence of Leishmania (Viannia) species on the response to antimonial treatment in patients with American tegumentary leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis 195: 18461851.[Crossref]
  16. Yardley V, Croft SL, De Doncker S, Dujardin JC, Koirala S, Rijal S, Miranda C, Llanos-Cuentas A, Chappuis F, , 2005. The sensitivity of clinical isolates of Leishmania from Peru and Nepal to miltefosine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 272275.
  17. Kato H, Caceres AG, Mimori T, Ishimaru Y, Sayed AS, Fujita M, Iwata H, Uezato H, Velez LN, Gomez EA, Hashiguchi Y, , 2010. Use of FTA cards for direct sampling of patients' lesions in the ecological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 48: 36613665.[Crossref]
  18. Lardeux F, Chavez T, Rodriguez R, Torrez L, , 2009. Anopheles of Bolivia: new records with an updated and annotated checklist. C R Biol 332: 489499.[Crossref]
  19. Beati L, Caceres AG, Lee JA, Munstermann LE, , 2004. Systematic relationships among Lutzomyia sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of Peru and Colombia based on the analysis of 12S and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Int J Parasitol 34: 225234.[Crossref]
  20. Lopez M, Inga R, Cangalaya M, Echevarria J, Llanos-Cuentas A, Orrego C, Arevalo J, , 1993. Diagnosis of Leishmania using the polymerase chain reaction: a simplified procedure for field work. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49: 348356.
  21. Salotra P, Sreenivas G, Pogue GP, Lee N, Nakhasi HL, Ramesh V, Negi NS, , 2001. Development of a species-specific PCR assay for detection of Leishmania donovani in clinical samples from patients with kala-azar and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 39: 849854.[Crossref]
  22. Arístides H, , 1999. La leishmaniasis tegumentaria en el Alto Tambopata, Departamento de Puno, Perú. Rev Med Exp. 15: 1524.
  23. Azevedo AC, Costa SM, Pinto MC, Souza JL, Cruz HC, Vidal J, Rangel EF, , 2008. Studies on the sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) from transmission areas of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in state of Acre, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103: 760767.[Crossref]
  24. Fernandez R, Galati EB, Carbajal F, Wooster MT, Watts DM, , 1998. Notes on the phlebotomine sand flies from the Peruvian southeast–I. Description of Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) adamsi n. sp. (Diptera: Psychodidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 93: 4144.[Crossref]
  25. Farrell J, , 2002. Leishmania. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers.[Crossref]
  26. Talmi-Frank D, Nasereddin A, Schnur LF, Schonian G, Toz SO, Jaffe CL, Baneth G, , 2010. Detection and identification of old world Leishmania by high resolution melt analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e581.[Crossref]
  27. Antinori S, Calattini S, Piolini R, Longhi E, Bestetti G, Cascio A, Parravicini C, Corbellino M, , 2009. Is real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) more useful than a conventional PCR for the clinical management of leishmaniasis? Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 4651.
  28. Hajjaran H, Vasigheh F, Mohebali M, Rezaei S, Mamishi S, Charedar S, , 2011. Direct diagnosis of Leishmania species on serosity materials punctured from cutaneous leishmaniasis patients using PCR-RFLP. J Clin Lab Anal 25: 2024.[Crossref]
  29. Bacha HA, Tuon FF, Zampieri RA, Floeter-Winter LM, Oliveira J, Nicodemo AC, Quiroga MM, Mascheretti M, Boulos M, Amato VS, , 2010. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis identification by PCR in the state of Para, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 105: 173178.[Crossref]
  30. Miranda JC, Reis E, Schriefer A, Goncalves M, Reis MG, Carvalho L, Fernandes O, Barral-Netto M, Barral A, , 2002. Frequency of infection of Lutzomyia phlebotomines with Leishmania braziliensis in a Brazilian endemic area as assessed by pinpoint capture and polymerase chain reaction. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 185188.[Crossref]
  31. Gil LH, Basano SA, Souza AA, Silva MG, Barata I, Ishikawa EA, Camargo LM, Shaw JJ, , 2003. Recent observations on the sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) fauna of the State of Rondonia, Western Amazonia, Brazil: the importance of Psychdopygus davisi as a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98: 751755.[Crossref]
  32. Grimaldi G, Jr Momen H, Naiff RD, McMahon-Pratt D, Barrett TV, , 1991. Characterization and classification of leishmanial parasites from humans, wild mammals, and sand flies in the Amazon region of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 645661.
  33. Bonfante-Garrido R, Urdaneta R, Urdaneta I, Alvarado J, , 1990. Natural infection of Lutzomyia trinidadensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) with Leishmania in Barquisimeto, Venezuela. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 85: 477.[Crossref]
  34. Brito ME, Andrade MS, Mendonca MG, Silva CJ, Almeida EL, Lima BS, Felix SM, Abath FG, da Graca GC, Porrozzi R, Ishikawa EA, Shaw JJ, Cupolillo E, Brandao-Filho SP, , 2009. Species diversity of Leishmania (Viannia) parasites circulating in an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the Atlantic rainforest region of northeastern Brazil. Trop Med Int Health 14: 12781286.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 13 Nov 2011
  • Accepted : 19 Apr 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error