Volume 86, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



There remains a need for new drugs to prevent relapse of or . infection. The relapsing primate malaria has been used for decades to assess drugs for anti-hypnozoite activity. After sporozoite inoculation and blood-stage cure of initial parasitemia with chloroquine, rhesus macaques were treated on subsequent relapses with chloroquine in conjunction with test regimens of approved drugs. Tested drugs were selected for known liver or blood-stage activity and were tested alone or in conjunction with low-dose primaquine. Tinidazole and pyrazinamide prevented relapse when used in conjunction with chloroquine and low-dose primaquine. Triamterene and tinidazole administered without primaquine achieved radical cure in some animals. All other tested drugs or combinations failed to prevent relapse. The rhesus macaque– model remains a useful tool for screening drugs with anti-hypnozoite activity. Tinidazole and pyrazinamide require further investigation as agents to enable dose reduction of primaquine.


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  • Received : 08 Jun 2011
  • Accepted : 05 Jan 2012
  • Published online : 01 Jun 2012

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