Volume 86, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms may influence susceptibility and manifestation of infection. In northern Chile, we examined 61 asymptomatic patients with chronic Chagas disease (CD), 64 patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC), and 45 healthy individuals. Low-producer genotypes were more common in CD patients (48%) than healthy individuals (31%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.01–5.4, = 0.047) but did not differ with manifestation. In contrast, the heterozygous ()-deficiency genotype D299G/T399I occurred more frequently in asymptomatic (14.8%) than CCC patients (3.1%; = 0.02). -I602S, -R753Q, -S249P, and -S180L did not associate with CD or CCC. These findings support the complement system to be involved in defense against infection and indicate that curbed TLR4 activation might be beneficial in preventing CCC.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Rassi A, Jr Rassi A, Marin-Neto JA, , 2010. Chagas disease. Lancet 375: 13881402.[Crossref]
  2. Williams-Blangero S, Vandeberg JL, Blangero J, Teixeira AR, , 1997. Genetic epidemiology of seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural Goias, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57: 538543.
  3. Cestari I, Krarup A, Sim RB, Inal JM, Ramirez MI, , 2009. Role of early lectin pathway activation in the complement-mediated killing of Trypanosoma cruzi . Mol Immunol 47: 426437.[Crossref]
  4. Kayama H, Takeda K, , 2010. The innate immune response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Microbes Infect 12: 511517.[Crossref]
  5. Thiel S, Frederiksen PD, Jensenius JC, , 2006. Clinical manifestations of mannan-binding lectin deficiency. Mol Immunol 43: 8696.[Crossref]
  6. Corr SC, O'Neill LA, , 2009. Genetic variation in Toll-like receptor signalling and the risk of inflammatory and immune diseases. J Innate Immun 1: 350357.[Crossref]
  7. Luz PR, Miyazaki MI, Neto NC, Nisihara RM, Messias-Reason IJ, , 2010. High levels of mannose-binding lectin are associated with the risk of severe cardiomyopathy in chronic Chagas disease. Int J Cardiol 143: 448450.[Crossref]
  8. Ramasawmy R, Cunha-Neto E, Fae KC, Borba SC, Teixeira PC, Ferreira SC, Goldberg AC, Ianni B, Mady C, Kalil J, , 2009. Heterozygosity for the S180L variant of MAL/TIRAP, a gene expressing an adaptor protein in the Toll-like receptor pathway, is associated with lower risk of developing chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. J Infect Dis 199: 18381845.[Crossref]
  9. Apt W, Zulantay I, Solari A, Ortiz S, Oddo D, Corral G, Truyens C, Carlier Y, , 2010. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Province of Choapa, IV Region, Chile: preliminary report (2005–2008). Biol Res 43: 269274.[Crossref]
  10. Apt W, Arribada A, Zulantay I, Solari A, Sanchez G, Mundaca K, Coronado X, Rodriguez J, Gil LC, Osuna A, , 2005. Itraconazole or allopurinol in the treatment of chronic American trypanosomiasis: the results of clinical and parasitological examinations 11 years post-treatment. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 99: 733741.[Crossref]
  11. Apt W, Aguilera X, Arribada A, Pérez C, Miranda C, Sánchez G, Zulantay I, Cortés P, Rodriguez J, Juri D, , 1998. Treatment of chronic Chagas' disease with itraconazole and allopurinol. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 133138.
  12. Schenone H, , 1999. Xenodiagnosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 94 (Suppl 1) 289294.[Crossref]
  13. Zulantay I, Honores P, Solari A, Apt W, Ortiz S, Osuna A, Rojas A, López B, Sánchez G, , 2004. Use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybridization assays to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in chronic chagasic patients treated with itraconazole or allopurinol. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 48: 253257.[Crossref]
  14. Arribada A, Apt W, Ugarte JM, , 1986. A four-year followup survey of Chagasic cardiopathy in Chile. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 20: 245266.
  15. Hamann L, Hamprecht A, Gomma A, Schumann RR, , 2004. Rapid and inexpensive real-time PCR for genotyping functional polymorphisms within the Toll-like receptor -2, -4, and -9 genes. J Immunol Methods 285: 281291.[Crossref]
  16. Johnson CM, Lyle EA, Omueti KO, Stepensky VA, Yegin O, Alpsoy E, Hamann L, Schumann RR, Tapping RI, , 2007. Cutting edge: a common polymorphism impairs cell surface trafficking and functional responses of TLR1 but protects against leprosy. J Immunol 178: 75207524.[Crossref]
  17. Madsen HO, Garred P, Thiel S, Kurtzhals JA, Lamm LU, Ryder LP, Svejgaard A, , 1995. Interplay between promoter and structural gene variants control basal serum level of mannan-binding protein. J Immunol 155: 30133020.
  18. Roelofs RW, Sprong T, de Kok JB, Swinkels DW, , 2003. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to detect the X/Y polymorphism in the promoter site of the mannose-binding lectin gene. Clin Chem 49: 15571558.[Crossref]
  19. Thomas DC, Clayton DG, , 2004. Betting odds and genetic associations. J Natl Cancer Inst 96: 421423.[Crossref]
  20. Boldt AB, Luz PR, Messias-Reason IJ, , 2011. MASP2 haplotypes are associated with high risk of cardiomyopathy in chronic Chagas disease. Clin Immunol 140: 6370.[Crossref]
  21. Larsen F, Madsen HO, Sim RB, Koch C, Garred P, , 2004. Disease-associated mutations in human mannose-binding lectin compromise oligomerization and activity of the final protein. J Biol Chem 279: 2130221311.[Crossref]
  22. Khor CC, Chapman SJ, Vannberg FO, Dunne A, Murphy C, Ling EY, Frodsham AJ, Walley AJ, Kyrieleis O, Khan A, Aucan C, Segal S, Moore CE, Knox K, Campbell SJ, Lienhardt C, Scott A, Aaby P, Sow OY, Grignani RT, Sillah J, Sirugo G, Peshu N, Williams TN, Maitland K, Davies RJ, Kwiatkowski DP, Day NP, Yala D, Crook DW, Marsh K, Berkley JA, O'Neill LA, Hill AV, , 2007. A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis. Nat Genet 39: 523528.[Crossref]
  23. Zafra G, Flórez O, Morillo CA, Echeverría LE, Martín J, González CI, , 2008. Polymorphisms of toll-like receptor 2 and 4 genes in Chagas disease. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 103: 2730.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Aug 2011
  • Accepted : 22 Oct 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error