Volume 87, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In highland areas of unstable, low malaria transmission, the extent to which immunity to uncomplicated malaria develops with age and intermittent parasite exposure has not been well characterized. We conducted active surveillance for clinical malaria during April 2003–March 2005 in two highland areas of western Kenya (Kapsisiywa and Kipsamoite). In both sites, annual malaria incidence was significantly lower in persons ≥ 15 years of age than in persons < 5 years of age (Kapsisiywa: incidence = 382.9 cases/1,000 persons among persons < 1–4 years of age versus 135.1 cases/1,000 persons among persons ≥ 15 years of age; Kipsamoite: incidence = 233.0 cases/1,000 persons in persons < 1–4 years of age versus 43.3 cases/1,000 persons in persons ≥ 15 years of age). In Kapsisiywa, among persons with malaria, parasite density and axillary body temperature were also significantly lower in persons ≥ 15 years of age than in persons < 5 years of age. Even in highland areas of unstable and low malaria transmission, age is associated with development of clinical immunity to malaria.


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  • Received : 15 Aug 2011
  • Accepted : 01 Aug 2012
  • Published online : 07 Nov 2012

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