1921
Volume 86, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Understanding the landscape-level determinants of West Nile virus (WNV) can aid in mapping high-risk areas and enhance disease control and prevention efforts. This study analyzed the spatial patterns of human WNV cases in three areas in South Dakota during 2003–2007 and investigated the influences of land cover, hydrology, soils, irrigation, and elevation by using case–control models. Land cover, hydrology, soils, and elevation all influenced WNV risk, although the main drivers were different in each study area. Risk for WNV was generally higher in areas with rural land cover than in developed areas, and higher close to wetlands or soils with a high ponding frequency. In western South Dakota, WNV risk also decreased with increasing elevation and was higher in forested areas. Our results showed that the spatial patterns of human WNV risk were associated with landscape-level features that likely reflect variability in mosquito ecology, avian host communities, and human activity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0515
2012-04-01
2017-06-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/86/4/724.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0515&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lindsey NP, Staples JE, Lehman JA, Fischer M, , 2010. Surveillance for human West Nile virus disease—United States, 1999–2008. MMWR Surveill Summ 59: 117.
  2. Roehrig JT, Layton M, Smith P, Campbell GL, Nasci R, Lanciotti RS, , 2002. The emergence of West Nile virus in North America: ecology, epidemiology, and surveillance. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 267: 223240.
  3. Campbell GL, Marfin AA, Lanciotti RS, Gubler DJ, , 2002. West Nile virus. Lancet Infect Dis 2: 519529.[Crossref]
  4. Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, Sardelis MR, Oguinn ML, Andreadis TG, Blow JA, , 2005. An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile Virus. J Med Entomol 42: 5762.[Crossref]
  5. Bell JA, Mickelson NJ, Vaughan JA, , 2005. West Nile virus in host-seeking mosquitoes within a residential neighborhood in Grand Forks, North Dakota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 5: 373382.[Crossref]
  6. Reisen WK, Carroll BD, Takahashi R, Fang Y, Garcia S, Martinez VM, Quiring R, , 2009. Repeated West Nile virus epidemic transmission in Kern County, California, 2004–2007. J Med Entomol 46: 139157.[Crossref]
  7. Reisen WK, Cayan D, Tyree M, Barker CM, Eldridge B, Dettinger M, , 2008. Impact of climate variation on mosquito abundance in California. J Vector Ecol 33: 8998.[Crossref]
  8. Winters AM, Eisen RJ, Lozano-Fuentes S, Moore CG, Pape WJ, Eisen L, , 2008. Predictive spatial models for risk of West Nile virus exposure in eastern and western Colorado. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 581590.
  9. Shaman J, Day JF, Komar N, , 2010. Hydrologic conditions describe West Nile virus risk in Colorado. Int J Environ Res Public Health 7: 494508.[Crossref]
  10. Day JF, Shaman J, , 2008. Using hydrologic conditions to forecast the risk of focal and epidemic arboviral transmission in peninsular Florida. J Med Entomol 45: 458465.[Crossref]
  11. Eisen L, Barker CM, Moore CG, Pape WJ, Winters AM, Cheronis N, , 2010. Irrigated agriculture is an important risk factor for West Nile virus disease in the hyperendemic Larimer-Boulder-Weld area of north central Colorado. J Med Entomol 47: 939951.[Crossref]
  12. Bolling BG, Barker CM, Moore CG, Pape WJ, Eisen L, , 2009. Seasonal patterns for entomological measures of risk for exposure to Culex vectors and West Nile virus in relation to human disease cases in northeastern Colorado. J Med Entomol 46: 15191531.[Crossref]
  13. Kwan JL, Kluh S, Madon MB, Reisen WK, , 2010. West Nile virus emergence and persistence in Los Angeles, California, 2003–2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 400412.[Crossref]
  14. Nielsen CF, Armijos MV, Wheeler S, Carpenter TE, Boyce WM, Kelley K, Brown D, Scott TW, Reisen WK, , 2008. Risk factors associated with human infection during the 2006 West Nile virus outbreak in Davis, a residential community in northern California. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 5362.
  15. Reisen WK, Takahashi RM, Carroll BD, Quiring R, , 2008. Delinquent mortgages, neglected swimming pools, and West Nile virus, California. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 17471749.[Crossref]
  16. Ruiz MO, Tedesco C, McTighe TJ, Austin C, Kitron U, , 2004. Environmental and social determinants of human risk during a West Nile virus outbreak in the greater Chicago area, 2002. Int J Health Geogr 3: 8.[Crossref]
  17. Harrigan RJ, Thomassen HA, Buermann W, Cummings RF, Kahn ME, Smith TB, , 2010. Economic conditions predict prevalence of West Nile virus. PLoS ONE 5: e15437.[Crossref]
  18. Wimberly MC, Hildreth MB, Boyte SP, Lindquist E, Kightlinger L, , 2008. Ecological niche of the 2003 West Nile virus epidemic in the northern great plains of the United States. PLoS ONE 3: e3744.[Crossref]
  19. Bowden SE, Magori K, Drake JM, , 2011. Regional differences in the association between land cover and West Nile virus disease incidence in humans in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 234238.[Crossref]
  20. Wey CL, Griesse J, Kightlinger L, Wimberly MC, , 2009. Geographic variability in geocoding success for West Nile virus cases in South Dakota. Health Place 15: 11081114.[Crossref]
  21. Eisen RJ, Enscore RE, Biggerstaff BJ, Reynolds PJ, Ettestad P, Brown T, Pape J, Tanda D, Levy CE, Engelthaler DM, Cheek J, Bueno R, Jr Targhetta J, Montenieri JA, Gage KL, , 2007. Human plague in the southwestern United States, 1957–2004: spatial models of elevated risk of human exposure to Yersinia pestis . J Med Entomol 44: 530537.[Crossref]
  22. Theobald DM, , 2001. Land-use dynamics beyond the American urban fringes. Geogr Rev 91: 544564.[Crossref]
  23. Tiner RW, Jr., 1984. Wetlands of the United States: Current Status and Recent Trends. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1416.
  24. Ezenwa VO, Milheim LE, Coffey MF, Godsey MS, King RJ, Guptill SC, , 2007. Land cover variation and West Nile virus prevalence: patterns, processes, and implications for disease control. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7: 173180.[Crossref]
  25. Hubalek Z, , 2008. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe. Parasitol Res 103 (Suppl 1): S29S43.[Crossref]
  26. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Wetlands Mapper Documentation and Instructions Manual. Madison, WI: Division of Habitat and Resource Conservation, Branch of Resource and Mapping Support.
  27. Patz JA, Strzepek K, Lele S, Hedden M, Greene S, Noden B, Hay SI, Kalkstein L, Beier JC, , 1998. Predicting key malaria transmission factors, biting and entomological inoculation rates, using modelled soil moisture in Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 3: 818827.[Crossref]
  28. Shaman J, Stieglitz M, Stark C, Le Blancq S, Cane M, , 2002. Using a dynamic hydrology model to predict mosquito abundances in flood and swamp water. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 613.
  29. Burnham KP, Anderson DR, , 2002. Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information Theoretic Approach. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  30. Gates MC, Boston RC, , 2009. Irrigation linked to a greater incidence of human and veterinary West Nile virus cases in the United States from 2004 to 2006. Prev Vet Med 89: 134137.[Crossref]
  31. Chuang TW, Hildreth MB, Vanroekel DL, Wimberly MC, , 2011. Weather and land cover influences on mosquito populations in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. J Med Entomol 48: 669679.[Crossref]
  32. Workman PD, Walton WE, , 2000. Emergence patterns of Culex mosquitoes at an experimental constructed treatment wetland in southern California. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 16: 124130.
  33. Mercer DR, Sheeley SL, Brown EJ, , 2005. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) development within microhabitats of an Iowa wetland. J Med Entomol 42: 685693.[Crossref]
  34. Johnson GD, Eidson M, Schmit K, Ellis A, Kulldorff M, , 2006. Geographic prediction of human onset of West Nile virus using dead crow clusters: an evaluation of year 2002 data in New York State. Am J Epidemiol 163: 171180.[Crossref]
  35. Eidson M, Miller J, Kramer L, Cherry B, Hagiwara Y, , 2001. Dead crow densities and human cases of West Nile virus, New York State, 2000. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 662664.[Crossref]
  36. Eidson M, Kramer L, Stone W, Hagiwara Y, Schmit K, , 2001. Dead bird surveillance as an early warning system for West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 631635.[Crossref]
  37. Nielsen CF, Reisen WK, , 2007. West Nile virus-infected dead corvids increase the risk of infection in Culex mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in domestic landscapes. J Med Entomol 44: 10671073.[Crossref]
  38. Ruiz MO, Walker ED, Foster ES, Haramis LD, Kitron UD, , 2007. Association of West Nile virus illness and urban landscapes in Chicago and Detroit. Int J Health Geogr 6: 10.[Crossref]
  39. Gibbs SE, Wimberly MC, Madden M, Masour J, Yabsley MJ, Stallknecht DE, , 2006. Factors affecting the geographic distribution of West Nile virus in Georgia, USA: 2002–2004. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6: 7382.[Crossref]
  40. Brown HE, Childs JE, Diuk-Wasser MA, Fish D, , 2008. Ecological factors associated with West Nile virus transmission, northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 15391545.[Crossref]
  41. Sugumaran R, Larson SR, Degroote JP, , 2009. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis of county-based human West Nile virus incidence in the continental United States. Int J Health Geogr 8: 43.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0515
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0515
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Aug 2011
  • Accepted : 01 Jan 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error