Volume 86, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To strengthen active dengue surveillance in Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy, two French Caribbean islands, we evaluated the epidemiological usefulness of collecting blood samples from NS1-positive dengue patients on filter paper to identify the dengue serotypes circulating in these regions during a 27-month period. This approach allowed dengue serotypes to be identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 90.1% of the total set of 666 samples analyzed and, in 95.5% of the samples collected during the acute phase of the disease. This prospective virological surveillance using blood samples absorbed onto filter paper, which were stored at 4°C and shipped at ambient temperature to a specialized laboratory for analysis, allowed us to avoid the logistic and financial costs associated with shipping frozen venous blood samples. This surveillance system offers a low-cost alternative for reinforcing dengue prevention in areas where specialized laboratories do not exist, notably by facilitating the early detection of potentially new dengue serotypes.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Monath TP, , 1994. Dengue: the risk to developed and developing countries. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 23952400.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Guzman MG, Kouri G, , 2002. Dengue: an update. Lancet Infect Dis 2: 3342.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization, 2009. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever: Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control. New edition. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  4. Rico-Hesse R, , 2007. Dengue virus evolution and virulence models. Clin Infect Dis 44: 14621466.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Sakuntabhai A, Turbpaiboon C, Casademont I, Chuansumrit A, Lowhnoo T, Kajaste-Rudnitski A, Kalayanarooj SM, Tangnararatchakit K, Tangthawornchaikul N, Vasanawathana S, Chaiyaratana W, Yenchitsomanus PT, Suriyaphol P, Avirutnan P, Chokephaibulkit K, Matsuda F, Yoksan S, Jacob Y, Lathrop GM, Malasit P, Desprès P, Julier C, , 2005. A variant in the CD209 promoter is associated with severity of dengue disease. Nat Genet 37: 507513.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Gubler DJ, Castra-Valez A, , 1991. A program for prevention and control of epidemic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in Puerto-Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 25: 237247. [Google Scholar]
  7. Gubler DJ, , 1989. Surveillance for dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 23: 397404. [Google Scholar]
  8. Lam SK, , 1993. Two decades of dengue in Malaysia. Trop Med 35: 195200. [Google Scholar]
  9. Sithiprasasna R, Patpoparn S, Attatippaholkun W, Suvannadabba S, Srisuphanunt M, , 2004. The geographic information system as an epidemiological tool in the surveillance of dengue virus-infected Aedes mosquitoes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35: 918926. [Google Scholar]
  10. Beatty ME, Stone A, Fitzsimons DW, Hanna JN, Lam SK, Vong S, Guzman MG, Mendez-Galvan JF, Halstead SB, Letson GW, Kuritsky J, Mahoney R, Margolis HS, , 2010. Best practices in dengue surveillance: a report from the Asia-Pacific and Americas Dengue Prevention Boards. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 16: e890.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Halstead SB, , 1988. Pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology. Science 239: 476481.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Van der Sar A, Woodall JP, Temmer LE, , 1979. The dengue epidemic in the Leeward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles: Saba, St. Eustatius, and St. Martin, 1977. Dengue in the Caribbean, 1977. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, 5559. [Google Scholar]
  13. Peyrefitte CN, Pastorino BA, Bessaud M, Gravier P, Tock F, Couissinier-Paris P, Martial J, Huc-Anais P, Césaire R, Grandadam M, Tolou HJ, , 2005. Dengue type 3 virus, Saint Martin, 2003–2004. EID 11: 757761. [Google Scholar]
  14. Anonymous, 2008. Bulletin d'Alerte et de Surveillance Antilles Guyane No. 6. Available at: http://www.invs.sante.fr/Actualites/Publications/basag/Basag2008_6.pdf. Accessed June 2008. [Google Scholar]
  15. Anonymous, 2008. Bulletin d'Alerte et de Surveillance Antilles Guyane No. 4. Available at: http://www.invs.sante.fr/publications/basag/basag2008_4.pdf. Accessed April 2008. [Google Scholar]
  16. Matheus S, Meynard JB, Lacoste V, Morvan J, Deparis X, , 2007. Use of capillary blood samples as a new approach for diagnosis of Dengue virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 45: 887890.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Matheus S, Meynard JB, Lavergne A, Girod R, Moua D, Labeau B, Dussart P, Lacoste V, Deparis X, , 2008. Dengue-3 outbreak in Paraguay: investigations using capillary blood samples on filter paper. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 685687. [Google Scholar]
  18. Prado I, Rosario D, Bernardo L, Alvarez M, Rodríguez R, Vázquez S, Guzmán MG, , 2005. PCR detection of dengue virus using dried whole blood spotted on filter paper. J Virol Methods 125: 7581.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Anonymous, 2008. Bulletin d'Alerte et de Surveillance Antilles Guyane No. 10. Available at: http://www.invs.sante.fr/publications/basag/basag2008_10. Accessed October 2008. [Google Scholar]
  20. Dussart P, Petit L, Labeau B, Bremand L, Leduc A, Moua D, Matheus S, Baril L, , 2008. Evaluation of two new commercial tests for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection using NS1 antigen detection in human serum. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 20: e280.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Tricou V, Vu HT, Quynh NV, Nguyen CV, Tran HT, Farrar J, Wills B, Simmons CP, , 2010. Comparison of two dengue NS1 rapid tests for sensitivity, specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses. BMC Infect Dis 28: 142150.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Serfling RE, , 1963. Methods for current statistical analysis of excess pneumonia-influenza deaths. Public Health Rep 78: 494506.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Costagliola D, Flahault A, Galinec D, Garnerin P, Menares J, Valleron AJ, , 1991. A routine tool for detection and assessment of epidemics of influenza-like syndromes in France. Am J Public Health 81: 9799.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Lanciotti RS, Calisher CH, Gubler DJ, Chang GJ, Vorndam AV, , 1992. Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30: 545551. [Google Scholar]
  25. Gubler DJ, Suharyono W, Sumarmo Wulur H, Jahja E, Sulianto Saroso J, , 1979. Virological surveillance for dengue hemorrhagic fever in Indonesia using the mosquito inoculation technique. Bull World Health Organ 57: 931936. [Google Scholar]
  26. Rigau-Perez JG, Gubler DJ, Gubler DJ, Kuno G, , 1997. Surveillance for dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. , eds. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Oxford: CAB International, 405424. [Google Scholar]
  27. Ooi EE, Gubler DJ, , 2009. Dengue in Southeast Asia: epidemiological characteristics and strategic challenges in disease prevention. Cad Saude Publica 25: S115S124.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Kumarasamy V, Wahab AH, Chua SK, Hassan Z, Chem YK, Mohamad M, Chua KB, , 2007. Evaluation of a commercial dengue NS1 antigen-capture ELISA for laboratory diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection. J Virol Methods 140: 7579.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Lima Mda R, Nogueira RM, Schatzmayr HG, dos Santos FB, , 2010. Comparison of three commercially available dengue NS1 antigen capture assays for acute diagnosis of dengue in Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e738.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Wang SM, Sekaran SD, , 2010. Early diagnosis of Dengue infection using a commercial Dengue Duo rapid test kit for the detection of NS1, IGM, and IGG. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 690695.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Thomas L, Verlaeten O, Cabié A, Kaidomar S, Moravie V, Martial J, Najioullah F, Plumelle Y, Fonteau C, Dussart P, Césaire R, , 2008. Influence of the dengue serotype, previous dengue infection, and plasma viral load on clinical presentation and outcome during a dengue-2 and dengue-4 co-epidemic. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 990998. [Google Scholar]
  32. Guzmán MG, Kourí G, Valdés L, Bravo J, Vázquez S, Halstead SB, , 2002. Enhanced severity of secondary dengue-2 infections: death rates in 1981 and 1997 Cuban outbreaks. Rev Panam Salud Publica 11: 223227.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Rico-Hesse R, Harrison LM, Salas RA, Tovar D, Nisalak A, Ramos C, Boshell J, de Mesa MT, Nogueira RN, da Rosa AT, , 1997. Origins of dengue type 2 viruses associated with increased pathogenesis in the Americas. Virology 230: 244251.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. La Ruche G, Souarès Y, Armengaud A, Peloux-Petiot F, Delaunay P, Desprès P, Lenglet A, Jourdain F, Leparc-Goffart I, Charlet F, Ollier L, Mantey K, Mollet T, Fournier JP, Torrents R, Leitmeyer K, Hilairet P, Zeller H, Van Bortel W, Dejour-Salamanca D, Grandadam M, Gastellu-Etchegorry M, , 2010. First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France. Euro Surveill 5: 19676. [Google Scholar]
  35. Domingo C, Niedrig M, Gascon J, Palacios G, Reyes N, Malo MJ, Wichmann O, Ruiz J, Schultze D, Schunk M, Puente S, Vinner L, Van Esbroeck M, Schuffenecker I, Grandadam M, Lopez-Velez R, Tenorio A, , 2011. Molecular surveillance of circulating dengue genotypes through European travelers. J Trop Med 18: 183190. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 21 Jul 2011
  • Accepted : 01 Oct 2011
  • Published online : 01 Jan 2012

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error