1921
Volume 86, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Death from Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is preventable with prompt, appropriate treatment. Data from two independent sources were analyzed to estimate the burden of fatal RMSF and identify risk factors for fatal RMSF in the United States during 1999–2007. Despite increased reporting of RMSF cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no significant changes in the estimated number of annual fatal RMSF cases were found. American Indians were at higher risk of fatal RMSF relative to whites (relative risk [RR] = 3.9), and children 5–9 years of age (RR = 6.0) and adults ≥ 70 years of age (RR = 3.0) were also at increased risk relative to other ages. Persons with cases of RMSF with an immunosuppressive condition were at increased risk of death (RR = 4.4). Delaying treatment of RMSF was also associated with increased deaths. These results may indicate a gap between recommendations and practice.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0453
2012-04-01
2018-12-16
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/86/4/713.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0453&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Cobb JO, , 1902. The so-called “spotted fever” of the Rocky Mountains–A new disease in Bitter Root Valley, Mont. Public Health Rep 17: 18681870. [Google Scholar]
  2. Anderson JF, , 1903. Spotted Fever (Tick Fever) of the Rocky Mountains. A New Disease. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. [Google Scholar]
  3. Wilson LB, Chowning WM, , 1902. The so-called “spotted fever” of the Rocky Mountains. J Am Med Assoc 39: 131136.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Wilson LB, Chowning WM, , 1904. Studies in Pyroplasmosis hominis (“Spotted fever” or “tick fever” of the Rocky Mountains). J Infect Dis 1: 3157.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Wood MW, , 1896. Spotted fever as reported from Idaho. Report to the Surgeon-General of the Army. 6065. [Google Scholar]
  6. Maxey EE, , 1899. Some observations on the so-called spotted fever of Idaho. Medical Sentinel 7: 433438. [Google Scholar]
  7. McCullough GT, , 1902. Spotted fever. Medical Sentinel 10: 225228. [Google Scholar]
  8. Mooser CE, , 1906. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. J Am Med Assoc 47: 686.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Becker FE, , 1926. Investigations on Rocky Mountian spotted fever in Colorado. J Infect Dis 39: 8288.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Wolbach SB, , 1919. Studies on Rocky Mountain spotted fever. J Med Res 341: 1198. [Google Scholar]
  11. Badger LF, Dyer RE, Rumreich AS, , 1931. An Infection of the Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever type. Identificaton in the Eastern Part of the United States. Washington, DC: United States Public Health Service, U.S. Government Printing Office. [Google Scholar]
  12. Dyer RE, Rumreich AS, Badger LF, , 1931. The typhus-Rocky Mountain spotted fever group in the United States. J Am Med Assoc 97: 589595.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Shipley PG, , 1932. Tick-bite fever in children. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 51: 83101. [Google Scholar]
  14. Litterer W, , 1933. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (eastern type) in the southern states. South Med J 26: 407415.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Milam MF, , 1934. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in North Carolina. South Med J 27: 788793.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Miller JK, , 1950. Rocky Mountain spotted fever on Long Island. Ann Intern Med 33: 13981406.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Topping NH, , 1941. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, a Note on Some Aspects of its Epidemiology. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. [Google Scholar]
  18. Smadel JE, , 1959. Status of the rickettsioses in the United States. Ann Intern Med 51: 421435.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Hattwick MA, Peters AH, Gregg MB, Hanson B, , 1973. Surveillance of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. JAMA 225: 13381343.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Hattwick MA, O'Brien RJ, Hanson BF, , 1976. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: epidemiology of an increasing problem. Ann Intern Med 84: 732739.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Bernard KW, Helmick CG, Kaplan JE, Winkler WG, , 1982. Surveillance of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1978–1980. J Infect Dis 146: 297299.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Fishbein DB, Kaplan JE, Bernard KW, Winkler WG, , 1984. Surveillance of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1981–1983. J Infect Dis 150: 609611.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Hattwick MA, Retailliau H, O'Brien RJ, Slutzker M, Fontaine RE, Hanson B, , 1978. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever. JAMA 240: 14991503.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Dalton MJ, Clarke MJ, Holman RC, Krebs JW, Fishbein DB, Olson JG, Childs JE, , 1995. National surveillance for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 1981–1992: epidemiologic summary and evaluation of risk factors for fatal outcome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 405413. [Google Scholar]
  25. Holman RC, Paddock CD, Curns AT, Krebs JW, McQuiston JH, Childs JE, , 2001. Analysis of risk factors for fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever: evidence for superiority of tetracyclines for therapy. J Infect Dis 184: 14371444.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Paddock CD, Holman RC, Krebs JW, Childs JE, , 2002. Assessing the magnitude of fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States: comparison of two national data sources. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 349354. [Google Scholar]
  27. Treadwell TA, Holman RC, Clarke MJ, Krebs JW, Paddock CD, Childs JE, , 2000. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1993–1996. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63: 2126. [Google Scholar]
  28. Chapman AS, Murphy SM, Demma LJ, Holman RC, Curns AT, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL, , 2006. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1997–2002. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 6: 170178.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Openshaw JJ, Swerdlow DL, Krebs JW, Holman RC, Mandel E, Harvey A, Haberling D, Massung RF, McQuiston JH, , 2010. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 2000–2007: interpreting contemporary increases in incidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 174182.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Haberling DL, Cheek JE, , 2009. Increasing incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever among the American Indian population in the United States. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 601605. [Google Scholar]
  31. Demma LJ, Traeger MS, Nicholson WL, Paddock CD, Blau DM, Eremeeva ME, Dasch GA, Levin ML, Singleton J, Jr Zaki SR, Cheek JE, Swerdlow DL, McQuiston JH, , 2005. Rocky Mountain spotted fever from an unexpected tick vector in Arizona. N Engl J Med 353: 587594.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. Vital Statistics Mortality Data, Multiple Cause Detail, 1999–2007. Public Use Data Tape Contents and Documentation Package. Hyattsville, MD: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. [Google Scholar]
  33. World Health Organization, 1992. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10). Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillancen. MMWR Recomm Rep 46: 155. [Google Scholar]
  35. Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2003. Position Statement 03-ID-08: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Available at: . Accessed December 30, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis – United States. MMWR Recomm Rep 55: 127. [Google Scholar]
  37. U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. Census Regions and Divisions of the United States. Available at: http://www.census.gov/geo/www/us_regdiv.pdf. Accessed May 6, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  38. Wilson EB, , 1927. Probable inference, the law of succession, and statistical inference. J Am Stat Assoc 22: 209212.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. West BC, DeVault GA, Jr Clement JC, Williams DM, , 1988. Aplastic anemia associated with parenteral chloramphenicol: review of 10 cases, including the second case of possible increased risk with cimetidine. Rev Infect Dis 10: 10481051.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. American Academy of Pediatrics Pickering L, Baker C, Kimberlin D, Long S, , 2009. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. , eds. Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Volume 28 Edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 573575. [Google Scholar]
  41. Fishbein DB, Frontini MG, Giles R, Vernon LL, , 1990. Fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 1981–1988. Ann N Y Acad Sci 590: 246247.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. American Academy of Pediatrics Pickering L, Peter G, Baker C, Gerber M, MacDonald N, Orenstein W, Patriarca P, , 2000. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. , eds. Red Book: 2000 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. Volume 25 Edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics, 491493. [Google Scholar]
  43. Abramson JS, Givner LB, , 1990. Should tetracycline be contraindicated for therapy of presumed Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children less than 9 years of age? Pediatrics 86: 123124. [Google Scholar]
  44. Purvis JJ, Edwards MS, , 2000. Doxycycline use for rickettsial disease in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J 19: 871874.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. O’Reilly M, Paddock C, Elchos B, Goddard J, Childs J, Currie M, , 2003. Physician knowledge of the diagnosis and management of Rocky Mountain spotted fever: Mississippi, 2002. Ann N Y Acad Sci 990: 295301.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  46. Lochary ME, Lockhart PB, Williams WT, Jr, 1998. Doxycycline and staining of permanent teeth. Pediatr Infect Dis J 17: 429431.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  47. Volovitz B, Shkap R, Amir J, Calderon S, Varsano I, Nussinovitch M, , 2007. Absence of tooth staining with doxycycline treatment in young children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 46: 121126.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  48. Raoult D, Paddock CD, , 2005. Rickettsia parkeri infection and other spotted fevers in the United States. N Engl J Med 353: 626627.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  49. Raoult D, Parola P, , 2008. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the USA: a benign disease or a common diagnostic error? Lancet Infect Dis 8: 587589.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  50. Paddock CD, , 2009. The science and fiction of emerging rickettsioses. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1166: 133143.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  51. Lange JV, Walker DH, Wester TB, , 1982. Documented Rocky Mountain spotted fever in wintertime. JAMA 247: 24032404.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  52. Walker DH, , 1995. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a seasonal alert. Clin Infect Dis 20: 11111117.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  53. Paddock CD, Greer PW, Ferebee TL, Singleton J, Jr McKechnie DB, Treadwell TA, Krebs JW, Clarke MJ, Holman RC, Olson JG, Childs JE, Zaki SR, , 1999. Hidden mortality attributable to Rocky Mountain spotted fever: immunohistochemical detection of fatal, serologically unconfirmed disease. J Infect Dis 179: 14691476.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  54. Stehr-Green P, Bettles J, Robertson LD, , 2002. Effect of racial/ethnic misclassification of American Indians and Alaskan Natives on Washington State death certificates, 1989–1997. Am J Public Health 92: 443444.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0453
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0453
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Erratum

  • Received : 13 Jul 2011
  • Accepted : 01 Nov 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error