Volume 86, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009–2011. Fecal samples were examined by microscopy and subsequently, the internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA region of and spp. were sequenced. Overall, 9.1% (58 of 634) were identified positive by microscopy for hookworm infection, and 47 (81.0%) of 58 were successfully amplified and sequenced. Sequence comparison found that (87.2%) was the most predominant hookworm identified, followed by (23.4%). No infection was detected in this study. Detection of in humans highlighted the zoonotic transmission among humans living near dogs. Thus, implementation of effective control measures for hookworm infections in future should seriously consider this zoonotic implication.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Hotez PJ, , 2009. One world health: neglected tropical diseases in a flat world. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: 405.[Crossref]
  2. Chan MS, Medley GF, Jamison D, Bundy DA, , 1994. The evaluation of potential global morbidity attributable to intestinal nematode infections. Parasitology 109: 373387.[Crossref]
  3. de Silva NR, Brooker S, Hotez PJ, Montresor A, Engels D, Savioli L, , 2003. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: updating the global picture. Trends Parasitol 19: 547551.[Crossref]
  4. Albonico M, Crompton DW, Savioli L, , 1999. Control strategies for human intestinal nematode infections. Adv Parasitol 42: 277341.[Crossref]
  5. Crompton DW, , 2000. The public health importance of hookworm disease. Parasitology 121: 3950.[Crossref]
  6. Croese J, Loukas A, Opdebeeck J, Prociv P, , 1994. Occult enteric infection by Ancylostoma caninum: a previously unrecognized zoonosis. Gastroenterol 106: 312.[Crossref]
  7. Khoshoo V, Craver R, Schantz P, Loukas A, Prociv P, , 1995. Abdominal pain, pan-gut eosinophilia, and dog hookworm infection. J Pediatr Gastroenterol 21: 481.[Crossref]
  8. Landmann JK, Prociv P, , 2003. Experimental human infection with the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum . Med J Aust 20: 6769.
  9. Traub RJ, Inpankaew T, Sutthikornchai C, Sukthana Y, Thompson RC, , 2008. PCR-based coprodiagnostic tools reveal dogs as reservoirs of zoonotic ancylostomiasis caused by Ancylostoma ceylanicum in temple communities in Bangkok. Vet Parasitol 155: 6773.[Crossref]
  10. Jiraanankul V, Aphijirawat W, Mungthin M, Khositnithikul R, Rangsin R, Traub RJ, Piyaraj P, Naaglor T, Taamari P, Leelayoova S, , 2011. Incidence and risk factors of hookworm infection in a rural community of central Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 594598.[Crossref]
  11. Sato M, Sanguankiat S, Yoonuan T, Pongvongsa T, Keomoungkhoun M, Phimmayoi I, Boupa B, Moji K, Waikagul J, , 2010. Copro-molecular identification of infections with hookworm eggs in rural Lao PDR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104: 617622.[Crossref]
  12. Beaver PC, Jung RC, Cupp EW, , 1984. Clinical Parasitology. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger.
  13. Lim YA, Romano N, Colin N, Chow SC, Smith HV, , 2009. Intestinal parasitic infections amongst Orang Asli (indigenous) in Malaysia: has socioeconomic development alleviated the problem? Trop Biomed 26: 110122.
  14. Ngui R, Saidon I, Chow SC, Rohela M, Lim YA, , 2011. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism in rural and remote West Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e974.[Crossref]
  15. Jex AR, Lim YA, Bethony JM, Hotez PJ, Young ND, Gasser RB, , 2011. Soil-transmitted helminths of humans in southeast Asia: towards integrated control. Adv Parasitol 74: 231265.[Crossref]
  16. Cheesbrough M, , 1998. Parasitological Tests: District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, Part 1. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
  17. Gasser RB, Chilton NB, Hoste H, Beveridge I, , 1993. Rapid sequencing of rDNA from single worms and eggs of parasitic helminthes. Nucleic Acids Res 21: 25252526.[Crossref]
  18. Verweij JJ, Pit DS, van Lieshout L, Baeta SM, Dery GD, Gasser RB, Polderman AM, , 2001. Determining the prevalence of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and Necator americanus infections using specific PCR amplification of DNA from faecal samples. Trop Med Int Health 6: 726731.[Crossref]
  19. de Gruijter JM, van Lieshout L, Gasser RB, Verweij JJ, Brienen EA, Ziem JB, Yelifari L, Polderman AM, , 2005. Polymerase chain reaction-based differential diagnosis of Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus infections in human in northern Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 10: 574580.[Crossref]
  20. Hall TA, , 1999. BioEdit: a user friendly biological sequence alignment editor and analysis program for Windows 95/98/NT. Series 41: 9598.
  21. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S, , 2007. MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24: 15961599.[Crossref]
  22. Nor Aini U, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Azlin M, Shaik A, Sa'iah A, Fatmah MS, Ismail MG, Firdaus MS, Aisah MY, Rozlida AR, Norhayati M, , 2007. Serum iron status in Orang Asli children living in endemic areas of soil-transmitted helminth. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 16: 724730.
  23. Hakim SL, Gan CC, Malkit K, Azian MN, Chong CK, Shaari N, Zainuddin W, Chin CN, Sara Y, Lye MS, , 2007. Parasitic infections among Orang Asli (aborigine) in the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 38: 415419.
  24. Al-Mekhlafi MH, Surin J, Atiya AS, Ariffin WA, Mohammed Mahdy AK, Che Abdullah H, , 2008. Pattern and predictors of soil-transmitted helminth reinfection among aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Peninsular Malaysia. Acta Trop 107: 200204.[Crossref]
  25. Romstad A, Gasser RB, Nansen P, Polderman AM, Chilton NB, , 1998. Necator americanus (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) from Africa and Malaysia have different ITS-2 rDNA sequences. Int J Parasitol 28: 611615.[Crossref]
  26. Anantaphruti MT, Maipanich W, Muennoo C, Pubampen S, Sanguankiat S, , 2002. Hookworm infections of schoolchildren in southern Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33: 468473.
  27. Hoagland KE, Schad GA, , 1978. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale: life history parameters and epidemiological implications of two sympatric hookworms of humans. Exp Parasitol 44: 3649.[Crossref]
  28. Wijers DJ, Smit AM, , 1966. Early symptoms after experimental infection of man with Ancylostoma braziliense var. ceylanicum . Trop Geogr Med 18: 4852.
  29. Carroll SM, Grove DI, , 1986. Experimental infection of human with Ancylostoma ceylanicum: clinical, parasitological, haematological and immunological findings. Trop Geogr Med 38: 3845.
  30. Anten JF, Zuidema PJ, , 1964. Hookworm infection in Dutch servicemen returning from West New Guinea. Trop Geogr Med 64: 216224.
  31. Velasquez CC, Cabrera BC, , 1968. Ancylostoma ceylanicum (Looss 1911) in a Filipino woman. J Parasitol 54: 430431.[Crossref]
  32. Yoshida Y, Okamoto K, Chiu JK, , 1968. Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection in dogs, cats, and man in Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 17: 378381.
  33. Areekul S, Radomyos P, Viravan C, , 1970. Preliminary report of Ancylostoma ceylanicum infection in Thai people. J Med Assoc Thai 53: 315321.
  34. Chowdhury AB, Schad GA, , 1972. Ancylostoma ceylanicum: a parasite of man in Calcutta and environs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21: 300301.
  35. Panasoponkul C, Radomyos P, Singhasivanon V, , 1985. Trichostrongylus infection in a Thai boy. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 16: 513514.
  36. Yong TS, Lee JH, Sim S, Lee J, Min DY, Chai JY, Eom KS, Sohn WM, Lee SH, Rim HJ, , 2007. Differential diagnosis of Trichostrongylus and hookworm eggs via PCR using ITS-1 sequence. Korean J Parasitol 45: 6974.[Crossref]
  37. Ghadirian E, Arfaa F, , 1975. Present status of trichostrongyliasis in Iran. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24: 935941.

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 12 Jul 2011
  • Accepted : 26 Nov 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error