Volume 86, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Disseminated sporotrichosis occurs in individuals with impaired cellular immunity, such as in cases of neoplasia, transplantation, diabetes, and especially, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This report presents a 32-year-old Brazilian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient who developed a protracted condition of disseminated sporotrichosis with endocarditis, bilateral endophthalmitis, and lymphatic involvement. He needed cardiac surgery to replace the mitral valve. isolates were recovered from cultures of subcutaneous nodules and mitral valve fragments. Species identification was based on classical and molecular methods. The patient received amphotericin B for 52 days and subsequently, oral itraconazole. He remains asymptomatic, and he is on maintenance therapy with itraconazole. Despite his positive clinical outcome, he developed bilateral blindness. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of endocarditis and endophthalmitis caused by .


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Pappas PG, Tellez I, Deep AE, Nolasco D, Holgado W, Bustamante B, , 2000. Sporotrichosis in Peru: description of an area of hyperendemicity. Clin Infect Dis 30: 6570.[Crossref]
  2. Itoh M, Okamoto S, Kariya H, , 1986. Survey of 200 cases of sporotrichosis. Dermatologica 172: 209213.[Crossref]
  3. Conti Diaz IA, , 1989. Epidemiology of sporotrichosis in Latin America. Mycopathologia 108: 113116.
  4. Marimon R, Gene J, Cano J, Trilles L, Dos Santos Lazera M, Guarro J, , 2006. Molecular phylogeny of Sporothrix schenckii . J Clin Microbiol 44: 32513256.[Crossref]
  5. Marimon R, Cano J, Gene J, Sutton DA, Kawasaki M, Guarro J, , 2007. Sporothrix brasiliensis, S. globosa, and S. mexicana, three new Sporothrix species of clinical interest. J Clin Microbiol 45: 31983206.
  6. Werner AH, Werner BE, , 1994. Sporotrichosis in man and animal. Int J Dermatol 33: 692700.[Crossref]
  7. Smilack JD, , 1993. Zoonotic transmission of sporotrichosis. Clin Infect Dis 17: 1075.[Crossref]
  8. Schubach TM, Valle AC, Gutierrez-Galhardo MC, Monteiro PC, Reis RS, Zancope-Oliveira RM, Marzochi KB, Schubach A, , 2001. Isolation of Sporothrix schenckii from the nails of domestic cats (Felis catus). Med Mycol 39: 147149.[Crossref]
  9. Fleury RN, Taborda PR, Gupta AK, Fujita MS, Rosa PS, Weckwerth AC, Negrao MS, Bastazini I, , 2001. Zoonotic sporotrichosis. Transmission to humans by infected domestic cat scratching: report of four cases in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Int J Dermatol 40: 318322.
  10. Dunstan RW, Reimann KA, Langham RF, , 1986. Feline sporotrichosis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 189: 880883.
  11. Vieira-Dias D, Sena CM, Orefice F, Tanure MA, Hamdan JS, , 1997. Ocular and concomitant cutaneous sporotrichosis. Mycoses 40: 197201.[Crossref]
  12. Kauffman CA, , 1999. Sporotrichosis. Clin Infect Dis 29: 231236.[Crossref]
  13. Bunce PE, Yang L, Chun S, Zhang SX, Trinkaus MA, Matukas LM, , 2012. Disseminated sporotrichosis in a patient with hairy cell leukemia treated with amphotericin B and posaconazole. Med Mycol 50: 197201.[Crossref]
  14. Silva-Vergara ML, Maneira FR, De Oliveira RM, Santos CT, Etchebehere RM, Adad SJ, , 2005. Multifocal sporotrichosis with meningeal involvement in a patient with AIDS. Med Mycol 43: 187190.[Crossref]
  15. Shaw JC, Levinson W, Montanaro A, , 1989. Sporotrichosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 21: 11451147.[Crossref]
  16. Heller HM, Fuhrer J, , 1991. Disseminated sporotrichosis in patients with AIDS: case report and review of the literature. AIDS 5: 12431246.[Crossref]
  17. Hardman S, Stephenson I, Jenkins DR, Wiselka MJ, Johnson EM, , 2005. Disseminated Sporothix schenckii in a patient with AIDS. J Infect 51: e73e77.[Crossref]
  18. Marimon R, Serena C, Gene J, Cano J, Guarro J, , 2008. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of five species of Sporothrix. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52: 732734.[Crossref]
  19. O'Donnel K, Nirenberg IH, Aoki T, Cigelnik E, , 2000. A multigene phylogeny of the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex. Detection of additional phylogenetically distinct species. Mycoscience 41: 6178.[Crossref]
  20. Neto Rda J, Machado AA, de Castro G, Quaglio AS, Martinez R, , 1999. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-case report. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 32: 5761.[Crossref]
  21. Gori S, Lupetti A, Moscato G, Parenti M, Lofaro A, , 1997. Pulmonary sporotrichosis with hyphae in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. A case report. Acta Cytol 41: 519521.[Crossref]
  22. Donabedian H, O'Donnell E, Olszewski C, MacArthur RD, Budd N, , 1994. Disseminated cutaneous and meningeal sporotrichosis in an AIDS patient. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 18: 111115.[Crossref]
  23. Curi AL, Felix S, Azevedo KM, Estrela R, Villar EG, Saraca G, , 2003. Retinal granuloma caused by Sporothrix schenckii . Am J Ophthalmol 136: 205207.[Crossref]
  24. Kurosawa A, Pollock SC, Collins MP, Kraff CR, Tso MO, , 1988. Sporothrix schenckii endophthalmitis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. 106: 376380.
  25. Font RL, Jakobiec FA, , 1976. Granulomatous necrotizing retinochoroiditis caused by Sporotrichum schenkii. Report of a case including immunofluorescence and electron microscopical studies. Arch Ophthalmol 94: 15131519.[Crossref]
  26. Cartwright MJ, Promersberger M, Stevens GA, , 1993. Sporothrix schenckii endophthalmitis presenting as granulomatous uveitis. Br J Ophthalmol 77: 6162.
  27. Riddell J, 4th Comer GM, Kauffman CA, , 2011. Treatment of endogenous fungal endophthalmitis: focus on new antifungal agents. Clin Infect Dis 52: 648653.[Crossref]
  28. Pierrotti LC, Baddour LM, , 2002. Fungal endocarditis, 1995–2000. Chest 122: 302310.[Crossref]
  29. Pfaller MA, Diekema DJ, , 2007. Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem. Clin Microbiol Rev 20: 133163.[Crossref]
  30. Akpunonu BE, Bittar S, Phinney RC, Taleb M, , 2008. Infective endocarditis and the new AHA guideline. Geriatrics 63: 1219.
  31. Filler SG, Sheppard DC, , 2006. Fungal invasion of normally non-phagocytic host cells. PLoS Pathog 2: e129.[Crossref]
  32. Utili R, Durante-Mangoni E, Tripodi MF, , 2007. Infection of intravascular prostheses: how to treat other than surgery. Int J Antimicrob Agents 30 (Suppl 1): S42S50.[Crossref]
  33. Ellis ME, Al-Abdely H, Sandridge A, Greer W, Ventura W, , 2001. Fungal endocarditis: evidence in the world literature, 1965–1995. Clin Infect Dis 32: 5062.[Crossref]
  34. Camin AM, Michelet C, Langanay T, de Place C, Chevrier S, Gueho E, Guiguen C, , 1999. Endocarditis due to Fusarium dimerum four years after coronary artery bypass grafting. Clin Infect Dis 28: 150.[Crossref]
  35. Sobottka I, Deneke J, Pothmann W, Heinemann A, Mack D, , 1999. Fatal native valve endocarditis due to Scedosporium apiospermum (Pseudallescheria boydii) following trauma. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 18: 387389.[Crossref]
  36. Rubinstein E, Lang R, , 1995. Fungal endocarditis. Eur Heart J 16 (Suppl B): 8489.[Crossref]
  37. Kauffman CA, Bustamante B, Chapman SW, Pappas PG, , 2007. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of sporotrichosis: 2007 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 45: 12551265.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Jul 2011
  • Accepted : 21 Oct 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error