Volume 86, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The geographic pattern of human risk for infection with sensu stricto, the tick-borne pathogen that causes Lyme disease, was mapped for the eastern United States. The map is based on standardized field sampling in 304 sites of the density of host-seeking nymphs infected with , which is closely associated with human infection risk. Risk factors for the presence and density of infected nymphs were used to model a continuous 8 km×8 km resolution predictive surface of human risk, including confidence intervals for each pixel. Discontinuous Lyme disease risk foci were identified in the Northeast and upper Midwest, with a transitional zone including sites with uninfected populations. Given frequent under- and over-diagnoses of Lyme disease, this map could act as a tool to guide surveillance, control, and prevention efforts and act as a baseline for studies tracking the spread of infection.


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  • Received : 21 Jun 2011
  • Accepted : 09 Oct 2011
  • Published online : 01 Feb 2012

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