Volume 86, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We investigated the use of psoralens and limes to enhance solar disinfection of water (SODIS) using an UV lamp and natural sunlight experiments. SODIS conditions were replicated using sunlight, 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles, and tap water with , MS2 bacteriophage, and murine norovirus (MNV). Psoralens and lime acidity both interact synergistically with UV radiation to accelerate inactivation of microbes. was ablated > 6.1 logs by SODIS + Lime Slurry and 5.6 logs by SODIS + Lime Juice in 30-minute solar exposures, compared with a 1.5 log reduction with SODIS alone ( = 3; < 0.001). MS2 was inactivated > 3.9 logs by SODIS + Lime Slurry, 1.9 logs by SODIS + Lime Juice, and 1.4 logs by SODIS in 2.5-hour solar exposures ( = 3; < 0.05). MNV was resistant to SODIS, with < 2 log reductions after 6 hours. Efficacy of SODIS against human norovirus should be investigated further.


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  • Received : 15 Jun 2011
  • Accepted : 01 Feb 2012
  • Published online : 01 Apr 2012

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