1921
Volume 86, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Diarrheagenic (DEC) are important enteric pathogens that cause a wide variety of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly in children. isolates cultured from 243 diarrheal stool samples obtained from Libyan children and 50 water samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genes characteristic of enteroaggregative (EAEC), enteropathogenic (EPEC), enterotoxigenic (ETEC), enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), and enteroinvasive (EIEC). The DEC were detected in 21 (8.6%) children with diarrhea; 10 (4.1%) cases were identified as EAEC, 3 (1.2%) as EPEC, and 8 (3.3%) were ETEC; EHEC, and EIEC were not detected. All DEC were grouped phylogenetically by PCR with the majority (> 70%) identified as phylogenetic groups A and B1. The EAEC isolates were also tested for eight genes associated with virulence using PCR. Multi-virulence (≥ 3 virulence factors) was found in 50% of EAEC isolates. Isolated EAEC possessed different virulence traits and belonged to different phylogenetic groups indicating their heterogeneity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0330
2012-05-01
2017-11-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/86/5/866.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0330&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Nataro JP, Kaper JB, , 1998. Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli . Clin Microbiol Rev 11: 142201.
  2. Sousa CP, , 2006. Escherichia coli as a specialized bacterial pathogen. Rev Biol Cién Terra 6: 341352.
  3. Kaper JB, Nataro JP, Mobley HL, , 2004. Pathogenic Escherichia coli . Nat Rev Microbiol 2: 123140.[Crossref]
  4. Gunzburg ST, Tornieporth NG, Riley LW, , 1995. Identification of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli by PCR-based detection of the bundleforming pilus gene. J Clin Microbiol 33: 13751377.
  5. Nada RA, Shaheen HI, Touni I, Fahmy D, Armstrong AW, Matthew Weiner M, Klena JD, , 2010. Design and validation of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the identification of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and associated colonization factor antigens. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 67: 134142.[Crossref]
  6. Pal A, Ghosh S, Ramamurthy T, Yamasaki S, Tsukamoto T, Bhattacharya SK, Nair GB, Takeda Y, , 1999. Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli from healthy cattle in a semi-urban community in Calcutta, India. Indian J Med Res 110: 8385.
  7. Schmidt H, Knop C, Franke S, Aleksic S, Heesemann J, Karch H, , 1995. Development of PCR for screening of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli . J Clin Microbiol 33: 701705.
  8. Sethabutr O, Vankatesan M, Murphy GS, Eampokalap B, Hoge CW, Echeverria P, , 1993. Detection of Shigellae and enteroinvasive Esherichia coli by amplification of the invasion plasmid antigen H DNA sequence in patient with dysentery. J Infect Dis 167: 458461.[Crossref]
  9. Yu J, Kaper JB, , 1992. Cloning and characterization of the eae gene of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Mol Microbiol 6: 411417.[Crossref]
  10. Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Czeczulin J, Dubovsky F, Kaper JB, Nataro JP, , 2000. Heterogeneous virulence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains isolated from children in southwest Nigeria. J Infect Dis 181: 252260.[Crossref]
  11. Sousa CP, Dubreuil JD, , 2001. Distribution and expression of the astA gene (EAST1 toxin) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella . Inter J Med Microbiol 291: 1520.[Crossref]
  12. Bernier C, Gounon P, Le Bouguenec C, , 2002. Identification of an aggregative adhesion fimbria (AAF) type III-encoding operon in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli as a sensitive probe for detecting the AAF-encoding operon family. Infect Immun 70: 43024311.[Crossref]
  13. Czeczulin JR, Balepur S, Hicks S, Phillips A, Hall R, Kothary MH, Navarro-Garcia F, Nataro JP, , 1997. Aggregative adherence fimbria II, a second fimbrial antigen mediating aggregative adherence in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli . Infect Immun 65: 41354145.
  14. Eslava C, Navarro-Garcia F, Czeczulin JR, Henderson IR, Cravioto A, Nataro JP, , 1998. Pet, an autotransporter enterotoxin from enteroaggregative Escherichia coli . Infect Immun 66: 31553163.
  15. Kahali S, Sarkar B, Rajendran K, Khanam J, Yamasaki S, Ranjan K, Nandy RK, Bhattacharya SK, Ramamurthy T, , 2004. Virulence characteristics and molecular epidemiology of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates from hospitalized diarrheal patients in Kolkata, India. J Clin Microbiol 42: 41114120.[Crossref]
  16. Nataro JP, Yikang D, Yingkang D, Walker K, , 1994. AggR, a transcriptional activator of aggregative adherence fimbria I expression in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli . J Bacteriol 176: 46914699.[Crossref]
  17. Nataro JP, Deng Y, Maneval DR, German AL, Martin WC, Levine MM, , 1992. Aggregative adherence fimbriae I of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli mediate adherence to HEp-2 cells and hemagglutination of human erythrocytes. Infect Immun 60: 22972304.
  18. Savarino SJ, Fox P, Deng Y, Nataro JP, , 1994. Identification and characterization of a gene cluster mediating enteroaggregative Escherichia coli aggregative adherence fimbria I biogenesis. J Bacteriol 176: 49494957.[Crossref]
  19. Yamamoto T, Nakazawa M, , 1997. Detection and sequences of the enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin 1 gene in enterotoxigenic E. coli strains isolated from piglets and calves with diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol 35: 223227.
  20. Vargas M, Gascon J, Casals C, Schellenberg D, Urassa H, Kahigwa E, Ruiz J, Vila J, , 2004. Etiology of diarrhea in children less than five years of age in Ifakara, Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 536539.
  21. Presterl E, Zwick RZ, Reichmann S, Aichelburg A, Winkler S, Kremsner PG, Graninger W, , 2003. Frequency and virulence properties of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children with diarrhea in Gabon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 406410.
  22. Orlandi PP, Magalhães GF, Matos BN, Silva T, Penatti M, Nogueira PA, Pereira da Silva LH, , 2006. Etiology of diarrheal infections in children of Porto Velho (Rondonia, western Amazon region, Brazil). Braz J Med Biol Res 39: 507517.[Crossref]
  23. Huang DB, Mohanty A, DuPont HL, Okhuysen PC, Chiang T, , 2006. A review of an emerging enteric pathogen: enteroaggregative Escherichia coli . J Med Microbiol 55: 13031311.[Crossref]
  24. Kaper JB, , 1996. Defining EPEC. Rev Microbiol 27: 130133.
  25. Trabulsi LR, Keller R, Gomes TA, , 2002. Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli . Emerg Infect Dis 8: 508513.[Crossref]
  26. Rahouma A, Klena JD, Krema Z, Abobker AA, Treesh K, Franka E, Abusnena O, Shaheen HI, El Mohammady H, Abudher A, Ghenghesh KS, , 2011. Enteric pathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in Tripoli-Libya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 84: 886891.[Crossref]
  27. Collee JG, Duguid JP, Fraser AG, Marmion BP, , 1989. Practical Medical Microbiology. Third edition. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
  28. Liu PY, Lau YJ, Hu BS, Shyr JM, Shi ZY, Tsai WS, Lin YH, Tseng CY, , 1995. Analysis of clonal relationships among isolates of Shigella sonnei by different molecular typing methods. J Clin Microbiol 33: 17791783.
  29. Escobar-Páramo P, Clermont O, Blanc-Potard AB, Bui H, Le Bouguenec C, Denamur E, , 2004. A specific genetic background is required for acquisition and expression of virulence factors in Escherichia coli . Mol Biol Evol 21: 10851094.[Crossref]
  30. Girardeau JP, Dalmasso A, Bertin Y, Ducrot C, Bord S, Livrelli V, Vernozy-Rozand C, Martin C, , 2005. Association of virulence genotype with phylogenetic background in comparison to different seropathotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates. J Clin Microbiol 43: 60986107.[Crossref]
  31. Clermont O, Bonacorsi S, Bingen E, , 2000. Rapid and simple determination of the Escherichia coli phylogenetic group. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 45554558.[Crossref]
  32. Nair GB, Ramamurthy T, Bhattacharya MK, Krishnan T, Ganguly S, Saha DR, Rajendran K, Manna B, Ghosh M, Okamoto K, Takeda Y, , 2010. Emerging trends in the etiology of enteric pathogens as evidenced from an active surveillance of hospitalized diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata, India. Gut Pathog 2: 4.[Crossref]
  33. Al-Gallas N, Bahri O, Bouratbeen A, Haasen AB, Aissa RB, , 2007. Etiology of acute diarrhea in children and adults in Tunis, Tunisia, with emphasis on diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: prevalence, phenotyping, and molecular epidemiology. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 571582.
  34. Dow MA, Toth I, Malik A, Herpay M, Nogrady N, Ghenghesh KS, Nagy B, , 2006. Phenotypic and genetic characterization of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enteroaggregative Escherichia. Coli (EAEC) from diarrhoeal and non-diarrhoeal children in Libya. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 29: 100113.[Crossref]
  35. Bölin I, Wiklund G, Qadri F, Torres O, Bourgeois AL, Savarino S, Svennerholm AM, , 2006. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli with STh and STp genotypes is associated with diarrhea both in children in areas of endemicity and in travelers. J Clin Microbiol 44: 38723877.[Crossref]
  36. Steinsland H, Valentiner-Branth P, Perch M, Dias F, Fischer TK, Aaby P, Molbak K, Sommerfelt H, , 2002. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections and diarrhea in a cohort of young children in Guinea-Bissau. J Infect Dis 186: 17401747.[Crossref]
  37. Albert MJ, Rotimi VO, Dhar R, Silpikurian S, Pacsa AS, Molla AM, Szucs G, , 2009. Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli are not a significant cause of diarrhoea in hospitalized children in Kuwait. BMC Microbiol 9: 6269.[Crossref]
  38. Cobeljic M, Miljkovic-Selimovic B, Paunovic-Todosijevic D, Velickovic Z, Lepsanovic Z, Zec N, Savic D, Ilic R, Konstantinovic S, Jovanovic B, Kostic V, , 1996. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli associated with an outbreak of diarrhoea in a neonatal nursery ward. Epidemiol Infect 117: 1116.[Crossref]
  39. Okeke IN, Lamikanra A, Steinruck H, Kaper JB, , 2000. Characterization of Escherichia coli strains from cases of childhood diarrhea in provincial southwestern Nigeria. J Clin Microbiol 38: 712.
  40. Gonzalez R, Diaz C, Marino M, Cloralt R, Pequeneze M, Perez-Schael I, , 1997. Age-specific prevalence of Escherichia coli with localized and aggregative adherence in Venezuelan infants with acute diarrhea. J Clin Microbiol 35: 11031107.
  41. Dualeh KA, Henry FG, , 1989. Breast milk. The life saver: observations from recent studies. Food Nutr Bull 11: 4346.
  42. Feachem RG, Koblinsky M, , 1984. Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: promotion of breast-feeding. Bull World Health Organ 62: 271291.
  43. Rúgeles LC, Bai J, Martínez AJ, Vanegas MC, Gómez-Duarte OG, , 2010. Molecular characterization of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains from stools samples and food products in Colombia. Int J Food Microbiol 38: 282286.[Crossref]
  44. Elias WP, Uber AP, Tomita SK, Trabulsi LR, Gomes TA, , 2002. Combinations of putative virulence markers in typical and variant enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains from children with and without diarrhoea. Epidemiol Infect 129: 4955.[Crossref]
  45. Zamboni A, Fabbricotti SH, Fagundes-Neto U, Scaletskey IC, , 2004. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli virulence factors are found to be associated with infantile diarrhea in Brazil. J Clin Microbiol 42: 10581063.[Crossref]
  46. Harrington SM, Dudley EG, Nataro JP, , 2006. Pathogenesis of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infection. FEMS Microbiol Lett 254: 1218.[Crossref]
  47. Moyo SJ, Maselle SY, Matee MI, Langeland N, Mylvaganam H, , 2007. Identification of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from infants and children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis 7: 92.[Crossref]
  48. Sarantuya J, Nishi J, Wakimoto N, Erdene S, Nataro JP, Sheikh J, Iwashita M, Manago K, Tokuda K, Yoshinaga M, Miyata K, Kawano Y, , 2004. Typical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the most prevalent pathotype among E. coli strains causing diarrhea in Mongolian children. J Clin Microbiol 42: 133139.[Crossref]
  49. Menard LP, Dubreull JD, , 2002. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin1 (EAST1): a new toxin with an old twist. Crit Rev Microbiol 28: 4360.[Crossref]
  50. Savarino SJ, Fasano A, Robertson DC, Levine MM, , 1991. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli elaborate a heat-stable enterotoxin demonstrable in an in vitro rabbit intestinal model. J Clin Invest 87: 14501455.[Crossref]
  51. Spencer J, Smith HR, Chart H, , 1999. Characterization of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolated from outbreaks of diarrhoeal disease in England. Epidemiol Infect 123: 413421.[Crossref]
  52. Qadri F, Svennerholm AM, Faruque AS, Sack RB, , 2005. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention. Clin Microbiol Rev 18: 465483.[Crossref]
  53. Wierzba TF, Abdel-Messih IA, Abu-Elyazeed R, Putnam SD, Kamal KA, Rozmajzl P, Ahmed SF, Fatah A, Zabedy K, Shaheen HI, Sanders J, Frenck R, , 2006. Clinic-based surveillance for bacterial- and rotavirus-associated diarrhea in Egyptian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 148153.
  54. El-Mohamady H, Abdel-Messih IA, Youssef FG, Said M, Farag H, Shaheen HI, Rockabrand DM, Luby SB, Hajjeh R, Sanders JW, Monteville MR, Klena JD, Frenck RW, , 2006. Enteric pathogens associated with diarrhea in children in Fayoum, Egypt. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 56: 15.[Crossref]
  55. Shaheen HI, Abdel Messih IA, Klena JD, Mansour A, El-Wakkeel Z, Wierzba TF, Sanders JW, Khalil SB, Rockabrand DM, Monteville MR, Rozmajzl PJ, Svennerholm AM, Frenck RW, , 2009. Genotypic analysis of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in samples obtained from Egyptian children presenting to referral hospitals. J Clin Microbiol 47: 189197.[Crossref]
  56. Clark CA, Manning PA, , 1993. Characterization of CS13 fimbrial operon and functional relatedness to K88 and F41. Second Australian Conference on Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Pathogenesis, Marysville, Victoria, 9–12 May.
  57. Navarro A, Eslava C, Perea LM, Inzunza A, Delgado G, Morales-Espinosa R, Cheasty T, Cravioto C, , 2010. New enterovirulent Escherichia coli serogroup 64474 showing antigenic and genotypic relationships to Shigella boydii 16. J Med Microbiol 59: 453461.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0330
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0330
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 May 2011
  • Accepted : 18 Nov 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error