1921
Volume 86, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is among the most medically important arboviruses in North America, and studies suggest a role for amphibians and reptiles in its transmission cycle. Serum samples collected from 351 amphibians and reptiles (27 species) from Alabama, USA, were tested for the presence of antibodies against EEEV. Frogs, turtles, and lizards showed little or no seropositivity, and snakes had high seropositivity rates. Most seropositive species were preferred or abundant hosts of spp. mosquitoes at Tuskegee National Forest, that target ectothermic hosts. The cottonmouth, the most abundant ectotherm sampled, displayed a high prevalence of seropositivity, indicating its possible role as an amplification and/or over-wintering reservoir for EEEV.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0283
2012-03-01
2017-11-17
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/86/3/540.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0283&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Scott TW, Weaver SC, Maramorsosch K, Murphy FA, Shatkin AJ, , 1989. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus: epidemiology and evolution of mosquito transmission. , eds. Advances in Virus Research. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, Inc., 277328.
  2. Villari P, Spielman A, Komar N, McDowell M, Timperi RJ, , 1995. The economic burden imposed by a residual case of eastern encephalitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 813.
  3. Bigler WJ, Lassing EB, Buff EE, Prather EC, Beck EC, Hoff GL, , 1976. Endemic eastern equine encephalomyelitis in Florida: a twenty-year analysis, 1955–1974. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 884890.
  4. Crans WJ, , 1962. Bloodmeal preference studies with New Jersey mosquitoes. Proceedings of the New Jersey Mosquito Extermination Association 49: 120126.
  5. Scott TW, Hildreth SW, Beaty BJ, , 1984. The distribution and development of eastern equine encephalitis virus in its enzootic mosquito vector, Culiseta melanura . Am J Trop Med Hyg 33: 300310.
  6. Crans WJ, Schulze TL, , 1986. Evidence incriminating Coquillettidia perturbans (Diptera: Culicidae) as an epizootic vector of eastern equine encephailitis. I. Isolation of EEE virus from C. perturbans during an epizootic among horses in New Jersey. Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecology 11: 178184.
  7. Molaei G, Oliver J, Andreadis TG, Armstrong PM, Howard JJ, , 2006. Molecular identification of blood-meal sources in Culiseta melanura and Culiseta morsitans from an endemic focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus in New York. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 11401147.
  8. Unnasch RJ, Sprenger T, Katholi CR, Cupp EW, Hill GE, Unnasch TR, , 2006. A dynamic transmission model of eastern equine encephalitis virus. Ecol Modell 192: 425440.[Crossref]
  9. Burton TM, Likens GE, , 1975. Energy flow and nutrient cycling in salamander populations in the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hamphshire. Ecology 56: 10681080.[Crossref]
  10. Pough FH, , 1980. Advantages to ectothermy for tetrapods. Am Nat 115: 92112.[Crossref]
  11. Iverson J, , 1982. Biomass and turtle populations: a neglected subject. Oecologia 55: 6972.[Crossref]
  12. Petranka JW, Murray SS, , 2001. Effectiveness of removal sampling for determining salamander density and biomass: a case study in an Appalachian streamside community. J Herpetol 35: 3644.[Crossref]
  13. Gibbons JW, Winne CT, Scott DE, Willson JD, Glaudas X, Andrews KM, Todd BD, Fedewa LA, Wilkinson L, Tsaliagos RN, Harper SJ, Greene JL, Tuberville TD, Metts BS, Dorcas ME, Nestor JP, Young CA, Akre T, Reed RN, Buhlmann KA, Norman J, Croshaw DA, Hagen C, Rothermel BB, , 2006. Remarkable amphibian biomass and abundance in an isolated wetland: implications for wetland conservation. Conserv Biol 20: 14571465.[Crossref]
  14. Hsu E, , 1998. Mutation, selection, and memory in B lymphocytes of exothermic vertebrates. Immunol Rev 162: 2536.[Crossref]
  15. Bowen GS, , 1977. Prolonged western equine encephalitis viremia in the Texas tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri). Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 171175.
  16. Karstad L, , 1961. Reptiles as possible reservoir hosts for Eastern Encephalitis virus. Transactions of the 26th North American Wildlife Conference, 186202.
  17. Hayes RO, Daniels JB, Maxfield HK, Wheeler RE, , 1964. Field and laboratory studies on eastern encephalitis in warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates. Am J Trop Med Hyg 13: 595606.
  18. Burton AN, McLintock J, Rempel JG, , 1966. Western equine encephalitis virus in Saskatchewan garter snakes and leopard frogs. Science 154: 10291031.[Crossref]
  19. Klenk K, Snow J, Morgan K, Bowen R, Stephens M, Foster F, Gordy P, Beckett S, Komar N, Gubler D, Bunning M, , 2004. Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21502155.[Crossref]
  20. White G, Ottendorfer C, Graham S, Unnasch TR, , 2011. Competency of reptiles and amphibians for eastern equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 85: 421425.[Crossref]
  21. Gebhardt LP, Hill DW, , 1960. Overwintering of western equine encephalitis virus. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 104: 695698.[Crossref]
  22. Thomas LA, Eklund CM, , 1962. Overwintering of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in garter snakes experimentally infected by Culex tarsalis . Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 109: 421424.[Crossref]
  23. Cupp EW, Klinger K, Hassan HK, Viguers LM, Unnasch TR, , 2003. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus transmission in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 495500.
  24. Cupp EW, Zhang D, Yue X, Cupp MS, Guyer C, Korves T, Unnasch TR, , 2004. Identification of reptilian and amphibian bloodmeals from mosquitoes in an eastern equine Encephalomyelitis virus focus in central Alabama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 272276.
  25. Burkett-Cadena ND, Graham SP, Hassan HK, Guyer C, Eubanks MD, Katholi CR, Unnasch TR, , 2008. Blood feeding patterns of potential arbovirus vectors of the genus Culex targeting ectothermic hosts. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 809815.
  26. Hassan HK, Cupp EW, Hill GE, Katholi CR, Klingler K, Unnasch TR, , 2003. Avian host preference by vectors of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 641647.
  27. Graham SP, Hassan HK, Burkett-Cadena ND, Guyer C, Unnasch TR, , 2009. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks. PLoS ONE 4: e7873.[Crossref]
  28. Heyer W, Donnelly M, McDiarmid R, Hayek L, Foster M, , 1994. Measuring and Monitoring Biological Diversity. Standard Methods for Amphibians. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  29. Basile AJ, Biggerstaff BJ, Kosoy OL, Junna SR, Panella NA, Powers AM, Stark LM, Nemeth NM, , 2010. Removal of species constraints in antibody detection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17: 5661.[Crossref]
  30. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, N Schmidt, R Emmons, , 1989. Arboviruses. , eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797855.
  31. Bradford MM, , 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72: 248254.[Crossref]
  32. Burkett-Cadena ND, White G, Eubanks MD, Unnasch TR, , 2011. Winter biology of wetland mosquitoes at a focus of eastern equine encephalitis virus transmission in Alabama, USA. J Med Entomol 48: 967973.[Crossref]
  33. Ernst CH, Ernst EM, , 2004. Snakes of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  34. Apperson CS, Hassan HK, Harrison BA, Aspen SE, Savage HM, Farajollahi A, Crans W, Daniels TJ, Falco RC, Benedict M, Anderson M, McMillen L, Unnasch TR, , 2004. Host feeding patterns of probable vector mosquitoes of West Nile Virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 4: 7182.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0283
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0283
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 02 May 2011
  • Accepted : 03 Oct 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error