Volume 85, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



A total of 382 stool samples were examined during a survey of intestinal parasites in members of the Tapirapé ethnic group, who live in the Brazilian Amazon region of Mato Grosso. Fecal DNAs from -positive samples were extracted, polymerase chain reaction amplified using -specific primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene, and sequenced. Three subtypes (STs) were identified: ST1 (41%), ST2 (32%), and ST3 (17%). Seven mixed infections were found (11%). The subtype distribution was markedly different from that reported in Europe in that ST4 was not detected and ST3 was not the most common subtype. This study is the first to include molecular characterization of in Brazil and in indigenous communities from Latin America.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Clark CG, , 2000. Cryptic genetic variation in parasitic protozoa. J Med Microbiol 49: 489491.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Stensvold CR, Lewis HC, Hammerum AM, Porsbo LJ, Nielsen SS, Olsen KE, Arendrup MC, Nielsen HV, Mølbak K, , 2009. Blastocystis: unraveling potential risk factors, and clinical significance of a common but neglected parasite. Epidemiol Infect 137: 16551663.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Tan KS, Singh M, Yap EH, , 2010. Current views on the clinical relevance of Blastocystis spp. Curr Infect Dis Rep 12: 2835.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Souppart L, Sanciu G, Cian A, Wawrzyniak I, Delbac F, Capron M, Dei-Cas E, Boorom K, Delhaes L, Viscogliosi E, , 2009. Molecular epidemiology of human Blastocystis isolates in France. Parasitol Res 105: 413421.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Utzinger J, Botero-Kleiven S, Castelli F, Chiodini PL, Edwards H, Köhler N, Gulletta M, Lebbad M, Manser M, Matthys B, N'Goran EK, Tannich E, Vounatsou P, Marti H, , 2010. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories. Clin Microbiol Infect 16: 267273.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Stensvold CR, Arendrup MC, Jespersgaard C, Mølbak K, Nielsen HV, , 2007. Detecting Blastocystis using parasitologic and DNA-based methods: a comparative study. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59: 303307.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Scicluna SM, Tawari B, Clark CG, , 2006. DNA barcoding of Blastocystis . Protist 157: 7785.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Stensvold R, Brillowska-Dabrowska A, Nielsen HV, Arendrup MC, , 2006. Detection of Blastocystis hominis in unpreserved stool specimens by using polymerase chain reaction. J Parasitol 92: 10811087.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Stensvold CR, Suresh GK, Tan KS, Thompson RC, Traub RJ, Viscogliosi E, Yoshikawa H, Clark CG, , 2007. Terminology for Blastocystis subtypes–a consensus. Trends Parasitol 23: 9396.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Meloni D, Sanciu G, Poirier P, El Alaoui H, Chabé M, Delhaes L, Dei-Cas E, Delbac F, Fiori PL, Cave DD, Viscogliosi E, , 2011. Molecular subtyping of Blastocystis sp. isolates from symptomatic patients in Italy. Parasitol Res 109: 613619.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Clark CG, , 1997. Extensive genetic diversity in Blastocystis hominis . Mol Biochem Parasitol 87: 7983.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Stensvold CR, Alfellani MA, Nørskov-Lauritsen S, Prip K, Victory EL, Maddox C, Nielsen HV, Clark CG, , 2009. Subtype distribution of Blastocystis isolates from synanthropic and zoo animals and identification of a new subtype. Int J Parasitol 39: 473479.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Parkar U, Traub RJ, Vitali S, Elliot A, Levecke B, Robertson I, Geurden T, Steele J, Drake B, Thompson RC, , 2010. Molecular characterization of Blastocystis isolates from zoo animals and their animal-keepers. Vet Parasitol 169: 817.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Stensvold CR, Nielsen HV, Mølbak K, Smith HV, , 2008. Pursuing the clinical significance of Blastocystis–diagnostic limitations. Trends Parasitol 25: 2329.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Kaneda Y, Horiki N, Cheng X, Fujita Y, Maruyama M, Tachibana H, , 2001. Ribodemes of Blastocystis hominis isolated in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 393396. [Google Scholar]
  16. Yoshikawa H, Wu Z, Kimata I, Iseki M, Karim IKM, Hossain MB, Zaman V, Haque R, Takahashi Y, , 2004. Polymerase chain reaction-based genotype classification among human Blastocystis hominis populations isolated from different countries. Parasitol Res 92: 2229.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Aguiar JI, Gonçalves AQ, Sodré FC, Pereira SR, Bóia MN, Lemos ER, Daher RR, , 2007. Intestinal protozoa and helminths among Terena Indians in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul: high prevalence of Blastocystis hominis . Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 40: 631634.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Borges JD, Alarcón RS, Neto VA, Gakiya E, , 2009. Intestinal parasitosis in Indians of the Mapuera community (Oriximiná, State of Pará, Brazil): high prevalence of Blastocystis hominis and finding of Cryptosporidium sp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis . Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 42: 348350.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Santín M, Gómez-Muñoz MT, Solano-Aguilar G, Fayer R, , 2010. Development of a new PCR protocol to detect and subtype Blastocystis spp. from humans and animals. Parasitol Res 109: 205212.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Faust EC, Sawitz W, Tobie J, Odom V, Peres C, Lincicome DR, , 1939. Comparative efficiency of various technics for the diagnosis of protozoa and helminths in feces. J Parasitol 25: 241262.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Allen AV, Ridley DS, , 1970. Further observations on the formol-ether concentration technique for fecal parasites. J Clin Pathol 23: 545546.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Truant AL, Elliott SH, Kelly MT, Smith JH, , 1981. Comparison of formalin-ethyl ether sedimentation, formalin-ethyl acetate sedimentation and zinc sulfate flotation techniques for detection of intestinal parasites. J Clin Microbiol 13: 882884. [Google Scholar]
  23. Zaman V, Khan KZ, , 1994. A comparison of direct microscopy with culture for the diagnosis of Blastocystis hominis . Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25: 792793. [Google Scholar]
  24. Leelayoova S, Siripattanapipong S, Thathaisong U, Naaglor T, Taamasri P, Piyaraj P, Mungthin M, , 2008. Drinking water: a possible source of Blastocystis spp. subtype 1 infection in schoolchildren of a rural community in central Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 401406. [Google Scholar]
  25. Banaticla JE, Rivera WL, , 2011. Detection and subtype identification of Blastocystis isolates from wastewater samples in The Philippines. J Water Health 9: 128137.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Li LH, Zhou XN, Du XW, Wang XZ, Wang LB, Jiang JY, Yoshikawa H, Steinmann P, Utzinger J, Wu Z, Chen JX, Chen SH, Zhang L, , 2007. Molecular epidemiology of human Blastocystis in a village in Yunnan province, China. Parasitol Int 56: 281286.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Dogruman-Al F, Dagci H, Yoshikawa H, Kurt Ö, Demirel M, , 2008. A possible link between subtype 2 and asymptomatic infections of Blastocystis hominis . Parasitol Res 103: 685689.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Dogruman-Al F, Kustimur S, Yoshikawa H, Tuncer C, Simsek Z, Tanyuksel M, Araz E, Boorom K, , 2009. Blastocystis subtypes in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease in Ankara, Turkey. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104: 724727.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Souppart L, Moussa H, Cian A, Sanciu G, Poirier P, Alaoui HE, Delbac F, Boorom K, Delhaes L, Dei-Cas E, Viscogliosi E, , 2010. Subtype analysis of Blastocystis isolates from symptomatic patients in Egypt. Parasitol Res 106: 505511.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 25 Jul 2011
  • Accepted : 28 Aug 2011
  • Published online : 01 Dec 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error