1921
Volume 85, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, , can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and—in selected areas—chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0464
2011-12-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/6/1015.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0464&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Guerra CA, Howes RE, Patil AP, Gething PW, Van Boeckel TP, Temperley WH, Kabaria CW, Tatem AJ, Manh BH, Elyazar IR, Baird JK, Snow RW, Hay SI, , 2010. The international limits and population at risk of Plasmodium vivax transmission in 2009. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e774.[Crossref]
  2. Mueller I, Galinski MR, Baird JK, Carlton JM, Kochar DK, Alonso PL, del Portillo HA, , 2009. Key gaps in the knowledge of Plasmodium vivax, a neglected human malaria parasite. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 555566.[Crossref]
  3. The World Health Organization, 2010. The World Malaria Report 2010. Geneva: WHO.
  4. Mali S, Steele S, Slutsker L, Arguin PM, , 2010. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2008. MMWR Surveill Summ 59: 115.
  5. Price RN, Tjitra E, Guerra CA, Yeung S, White NJ, Anstey NM, , 2007. Vivax malaria: neglected and not benign. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 7987.
  6. Pan American Health Organization, 2010. Malaria situation in the Americas.
  7. Mali S, Steele S, Slutsker L, Arguin PM, , 2009. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2007. MMWR Surveill Summ 58: 116.
  8. Mali S, Steele S, Slutsker L, Arguin PM, , 2008. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2006. MMWR Surveill Summ 57: 2439.
  9. Thwing J, Skarbinski J, Newman RD, Barber AM, Mali S, Roberts JM, Slutsker L, Arguin PM, ; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2005. MMWR Surveill Summ 56: 2340.
  10. Skarbinski J, James EM, Causer LM, Barber AM, Mali S, Nguyen-Dinh P, Roberts JM, Parise ME, Slutsker L, Newman RD, , 2006. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2004. MMWR Surveill Summ 55: 2337.
  11. Eliades MJ, Shah S, Nguyen-Dinh P, Newman RD, Barber AM, Roberts JM, Mali S, Parise ME, Steketee R, , 2005. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2003. MMWR Surveill Summ 54: 2540.
  12. Shah S, Filler S, Causer LM, Rowe AK, Bloland PB, Barber AM, Roberts JM, Desai MR, Parise ME, Steketee RW, , 2004. Malaria surveillance–United States, 2002. MMWR Surveill Summ 53: 2134.
  13. Mali S, Tan KR, Arguin PM, , 2011. Malaria surveillance-United States, 2009. MMWR Surveill Summ 60: 115.
  14. Muhlberger N, Jelinek T, Gascon J, Probst M, Zoller T, Schunk M, Beran J, Gjørup I, Behrens RH, Clerinx J, Björkman A, McWhinney P, Matteelli A, Lopoez-Velez R, Bisoffi Z, Hellgren U, Puente S, Schmid ML, Myrvang B, Holthoff-Stich ML, Luferl H, Hatz C, Kollaritsch H, Kapaun A, Knobloch J, Iversen J, Kotlowski A, Malvy DJ, Kern P, Fry G, Siikamaki H, Schulze MA, Soula G, Paul M, Gómez i Prat J, Lehmann V, Bouchaud O, da Cunha S, Atouguia J, Boecken G, , 2004. Epidemiology and clinical features of vivax malaria imported to Europe: sentinel surveillance data from TropNetEurop. Malar J 3: 5.[Crossref]
  15. MacLean JD, Demers AM, Ndao M, Kokoskin E, Ward BJ, Gyorkos TW, , 2004. Malaria epidemics and surveillance systems in Canada. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 11951201.[Crossref]
  16. Elliott JH, O'Brien D, Leder K, Kitchener S, Schwartz E, Weld L, Brown GV, Kain KC, Torresi J, ; GeoSentinel Surveillance Network, 2004. Imported Plasmodium vivax malaria: demographic and clinical features in nonimmune travelers. J Travel Med 11: 213217.[Crossref]
  17. Leder K, Black J, O'Brien D, Greenwood Z, Kain KC, Schwartz E, Brown G, Torresi J, , 2004. Malaria in travelers: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network. Clin Infect Dis 39: 11041112.[Crossref]
  18. Anstey NM, Russell B, Yeo TW, Price RN, , 2009. The pathophysiology of vivax malaria. Trends Parasitol 25: 220227.[Crossref]
  19. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Benitez JA, Arria M, , 2008. Malaria mortality in Venezuela: focus on deaths due to Plasmodium vivax in children. J Trop Pediatr 54: 94101.[Crossref]
  20. Alexandre MA, Ferreira CO, Siqueira AM, Magalhães BL, Mourão MP, Lacerda MV, Alecrim MG, , 2010. Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 16111614.[Crossref]
  21. Kochar DK, Saxena V, Singh N, Kochar SK, Kumar SV, Das A, , 2005. Plasmodium vivax malaria. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 132134.[Crossref]
  22. Kochar DK, Pakalapati D, Kochar SK, Sirohi P, Khatri MP, Kochar A, Das A, , 2007. An unexpected cause of fever and seizures. Lancet 370: 908.[Crossref]
  23. Kochar DK, Das A, Kochar SK, Saxina V, Sirohi P, Garg S, Kochar A, Khatri MP, Gupta V, , 2009. Severe Plasmodium vivax malaria: a report on serial cases from Bikaner in northwestern India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 194198.
  24. Baird JK, , 2007. Neglect of Plasmodium vivax malaria. Trends Parasitol 23: 533539.[Crossref]
  25. Saleri N, Gulletta M, Matteelli A, Caligaris S, Tomasoni LR, Antonini B, Perandin F, Castelli F, , 2006. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in Plasmodium vivax malaria in traveler returning from Venezuela. J Travel Med 13: 112113.[Crossref]
  26. Tjitra E, Anstey NM, Sugiarto P, Warikar N, Kenangalem E, Karyana M, Lampah DA, Price RN, , 2008. Multidrug-resistant Plasmodium vivax associated with severe and fatal malaria: a prospective study in Papua, Indonesia. PLoS Med 5: e128.[Crossref]
  27. Genton B, D'Acremont V, Rare L, Baea K, Reeder JC, Alpers MP, Müller I, , 2008. Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections are associated with severe malaria in children: a prospective cohort study from Papua New Guinea. PLoS Med 5: e127.[Crossref]
  28. Arguin P, , 2010. Is malaria chemoprophylaxis appropriate for travel to endemic areas in the Americas? 14th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID). Miami, FL, March 9–12, 2010.
  29. Baird JK, Hoffman SL, , 2004. Primaquine therapy for malaria. Clin Infect Dis 39: 13361345.[Crossref]
  30. Boulos M, Amato Neto V, Dutra AP, Di Santi SM, Shiroma M, , 1991. Frequency of malaria relapse due to Plasmodium vivax in a non-endemic region (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 33: 143146.[Crossref]
  31. Hanf M, Stephani A, Basurko C, Nacher M, Carme B, , 2009. Determination of the Plasmodium vivax relapse pattern in Camopi, French Guiana. Malar J 8: 278.[Crossref]
  32. Contacos PG, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Krotoski WA, Howard WA, , 1972. Studies on the characterization of Plasmodium vivax strains from Central America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21: 707712.
  33. Mason J, , 1975. Patterns of Plasmodium vivax recurrence in a high-incidence coastal area of El Salvador, C. A. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24: 581585.
  34. Schwartz E, Parise M, Kozarsky P, Cetron M, , 2003. Delayed onset of malaria–implications for chemoprophylaxis in travelers. N Engl J Med 349: 15101516.[Crossref]
  35. Schlagenhauf P, Petersen E, , 2008. Malaria chemoprophylaxis: strategies for risk groups. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 466472.[Crossref]
  36. Behrens RH, Carroll B, Beran J, Bouchaud O, Hellgren U, Hatz C, Jelinek T, Legros F, Mühlberger N, Myrvang B, Siikamäki H, Visser L, ; TropNetEurop, 2007. The low and declining risk of malaria in travelers to Latin America: is there still an indication for chemoprophylaxis? Malar J 6: 114.[Crossref]
  37. Office of Travel and Tourism Industries, 2010. U.S. Citizen Air Traffic to Overseas Regions, Mexico, and Canada in 2008. Available at: http://www.tinet.ita.doc.gov/view/m-2008-O-001/index.html. Accessed December 21, 2010.
  38. Freedman DO, , 2008. Clinical practice. Malaria prevention in short-term travelers. N Engl J Med 359: 603612.[Crossref]
  39. CDC, 2010. CDC Malaria Map Application. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/map/. Accessed January 12, 2011.
  40. Chen LH, Wilson ME, Schlagenhauf P, , 2007. Controversies and misconceptions in malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers. JAMA 297: 22512263.[Crossref]
  41. Askling HH, Nilsson J, Tegnell A, Janzon R, Ekdahl K, , 2005. Malaria risk in travelers. Emerg Infect Dis 11: 436441.[Crossref]
  42. Brochero HL, Buitrago LS, Olano VA, , 2005. Biting activity and breeding sites of Anopheles species in the municipality Villavicencio, Meta, Colombia. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 21: 182186.[Crossref]
  43. Harris AF, Matias-Arnez A, Hill N, , 2006. Biting time of Anopheles darlingi in the Bolivian Amazon and implications for control of malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: 4547.[Crossref]
  44. Zielinski-Gutierrez E, Wirtz RA, Nasci RS, , 2009. Protection against mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects and arthropods. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ed. Traveler's Health—Yellow Book. Atlanta, GA: CDC Health Information for International Travel 2010.
  45. Arguin PM, Steele S, , 2011. Malaria. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, ed. Traveler's Health—Yellow Book. Atlanta, GA: CDC Health Information for International Travel 2012.
  46. Steffen R, Holdener F, Wyss R, Nurminen L, , 1990. Malaria prophylaxis and self-therapy in airline crew. Aviat Space Environ Med 11: 942945.
  47. Chen LH, Keystone JS, , 2005. New strategies for the prevention of malaria in travelers. Infect Dis Clin North Am 19: 185210.[Crossref]
  48. Høgh B, Clarke PD, Camus D, Nothdurft HD, Overbosch D, Günther M, Joubert I, Kain KC, Shaw D, Roskell NS, Chulay JD, , 2000. Atovaquone-proguanil versus chloroquine-proguanil for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune travelers: a randomized, double-blind study. Malarone International Study Team. Lancet 356: 18881894.[Crossref]
  49. Overbosch D, Schilthuis H, Bienzle U, Behrens RH, Kain KC, Clarke PD, Toovey S, Knobloch J, Nothdraft HD, Shaw D, Roskell NS, Chulay JD, ; Malarone International Study Team, 2001. Atovaquone-proguanil versus mefloquine for malaria prophylaxis in nonimmune travelers: results from a randomized, double-blind study. Clin Infect Dis 33: 10151021.[Crossref]
  50. Ling J, Baird JK, Fryauff DJ, Sismadi P, Bangs MJ, Lacy M, Barcus MJ, Gramzinski R, Maguire JD, Kumusumangsih M, Miller GB, Jones TR, Chulay JD, Hoffman SL, ; Naval Medical Research Unit 2 Clinical Trial Team, 2002. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of atovaquone/proguanil for the prevention of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria among migrants to Papua, Indonesia. Clin Infect Dis 35: 825833.[Crossref]
  51. Soto J, Toledo J, Luzz M, Gutierrez P, Berman J, Duparc S, , 2006. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of Malarone for malaria prophylaxis in non-immune Colombian soldiers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 430433.
  52. Povinelli L, Monson TA, Fox BC, Parise ME, Morrisey JM, Vaidya AB, , 2003. Plasmodium vivax malaria in spite of atovaquone/proguanil (malarone) prophylaxis. J Travel Med 10: 353355.[Crossref]
  53. Schlagenhauf P, Tschopp A, Johnson R, Nothdurft HD, Beck B, Schwartz E, Herold M, Krebs B, Veit O, Allwinn R, Steffen R, , 2003. Tolerability of malaria chemoprophylaxis in non-immune travelers to sub-Saharan Africa: multicentre, randomized, double blind, four arm study. BMJ 327: 1078.[Crossref]
  54. Alvarado GE, Soto GJ, , 2008. Volcanoes in the pre-Columbian life, legend, and archaeology of Costa Rica (Central America). J Volcanol Geotherm Res 176: 356362.[Crossref]
  55. Taylor WR, Richie TL, Fryauff DJ, Picarima H, Ohrt C, Tang D, Braitman D, Murphy GS, Widjaja H, Tjitra E, Ganjar A, Jones TR, Basri H, Berman J, , 1999. Malaria prophylaxis using azithromycin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Clin Infect Dis 28: 7481.[Crossref]
  56. Ohrt C, Richie TL, Widjaja H, Shanks GD, Fitriadi J, Fryauff DJ, Handschin J, Tang D, Sandjaja B, Tjitra E, Hadiarso L, Watt G, Wignall FS, , 1997. Mefloquine compared with doxycycline for the prophylaxis of malaria in Indonesian soldiers. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 126: 963972.[Crossref]
  57. Croft A, Garner P, , 1997. Mefloquine to prevent malaria: a systematic review of trials. BMJ 315: 14121416.[Crossref]
  58. Soto J, Toledo J, Rodriquez M, Sanchez J, Herrera R, Padilla J, Berman J, , 1998. Primaquine prophylaxis against malaria in nonimmune Colombian soldiers: efficacy and toxicity. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 129: 241244.[Crossref]
  59. Baird JK, Lacy MD, Basri H, Barcus MJ, Maguire JD, Bangs MJ, Gramzinski R, Sismadi P, Krisin , Ling J, Wiady I, Kusumaningsih M, Jones TR, Fryauff DJ, Hoffman SL, ; United States Naval Medical Research Unit 2 Clinical Trials Team, 2001. Randomized, parallel placebo-controlled trial of primaquine for malaria prophylaxis in Papua, Indonesia. Clin Infect Dis 33: 19901997.[Crossref]
  60. Fryauff DJ, Baird JK, Basri H, Sumawinata I, Purnomo , Richie TL, Ohrt CK, Mouzin E, Church CJ, Richards AL, Subianto B, Sandjaja B, Wignall FS, Hoffman SL, , 1995. Randomized placebo-controlled trial of primaquine for prophylaxis of falciparum and vivax malaria. Lancet 346: 11901193.[Crossref]
  61. Schwartz E, Regev-Yochay G, , 1999. Primaquine as prophylaxis for malaria for nonimmune travelers: a comparison with mefloquine and doxycycline. Clin Infect Dis 29: 15021506.[Crossref]
  62. Arnold J, Alving AS, Hockwald RS, Clayman CB, Dern RJ, Beutler E, Flanagan CL, Jeffery GM, , 1955. The antimalarial action of primaquine against the blood and tissue stages of falciparum malaria (Panama, P-F-6 strain). J Lab Clin Med 46: 391397.
  63. Basco LK, Bickii J, Ringwald P, , 1999. In-vitro activity of primaquine against the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93: 179182.[Crossref]
  64. Baird JK, Schwartz E, Hoffman SL, , 2007. Prevention and treatment of vivax malaria. Curr Infect Dis Rep 9: 3946.[Crossref]
  65. Hill DR, Baird JK, Parise ME, Lewis LS, Ryan ET, Magill AJ, , 2006. Primaquine: report from CDC expert meeting on malaria chemoprophylaxis I. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 402415.
  66. Clayman CB, Arnold J, Hockwald RS, Yount EH, Jr Edgcomb JH, Alving AS, , 1952. Toxicity of primaquine in Caucasians. J Am Med Assoc 149: 15631568.[Crossref]
  67. Ganesan S, Tekwani BL, Sahu R, Tripathi LM, Walker LA, , 2009. Cytochrome P(450)-dependent toxic effects of primaquine on human erythrocytes. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 241: 1422.[Crossref]
  68. Zhou SF, , 2009. Polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2D6 and its clinical significance: Part I. Clin Pharmacokinet 48: 689723.[Crossref]
  69. Binh VQ, Chinh NT, Thanh NX, Cuong BT, Quang NN, Dai B, Travers T, Edstein MD, , 2009. Sex affects the steady-state pharmacokinetics of primaquine but not doxycycline in healthy subjects. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 747753.[Crossref]
  70. Cuong BT, Binh VQ, Dai B, Duy DN, Lovell CM, Rieckmann KH, Edstein MD, , 2006. Does gender, food or grapefruit juice alter the pharmacokinetics of primaquine in healthy subjects? Br J Clin Pharmacol 61: 682689.[Crossref]
  71. White NJ, , 1998. Why is it that antimalarial drug treatments do not always work? Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92: 449458.
  72. Edgcomb JH, Arnold J, Yount EH, Jr Alving AS, Eichelberger L, Jeffery GM, Eyles D, Young MD, , 1950. Primaquine, SN 13272, a new curative agent in vivax malaria; a preliminary report. J Natl Malar Soc 9: 285292.
  73. Jelinek T, Nothdurft HD, Von Sonnenburg F, Loscher T, , 1995. Long-term efficacy of primaquine in the treatment of vivax malaria in nonimmune travelers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 322324.
  74. Reddy P, Flaherty JP, , 2006. Plasmodium vivax malaria relapses after primaquine prophylaxis. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 17951796.[Crossref]
  75. Boggild AK, Parise ME, Lewis LS, Kain KC, , 2007. Atovaquone-proguanil: report from the CDC expert meeting on malaria chemoprophylaxis (II). Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 208223.
  76. Lobel HO, Miani M, Eng T, Bernard KW, Hightower AW, Campbell CC, , 1993. Long-term malaria prophylaxis with weekly mefloquine. Lancet 341: 848851.[Crossref]
  77. Baird JK, Fryauff DJ, Hoffman SL, , 2003. Primaquine for prevention of malaria in travelers. Clin Infect Dis 37: 16591667.[Crossref]
  78. Bryan JP, , 2006. Cost considerations of malaria chemoprophylaxis including use of primaquine for primary or terminal chemoprophylaxis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 416420.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0464
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0464
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Jul 2011
  • Accepted : 28 Aug 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error