Volume 85, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



US surveillance programs for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis collect demographic data on patients, including race and ethnicity. Reporting of these diseases among race groups is not uniform across the United States. Because a laboratory confirmation is required to meet the national surveillance case definition, reporting may be influenced by a patient's access to healthcare. Determining the association between race and ethnicity with incidence of rickettsial infections requires targeted, active surveillance.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. CDC health disparities and inequalities report—United States, 2011. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60(Suppl): 1113. [Google Scholar]
  2. The Office of Minority Health, 2010. OMB Standards for Data on Race and Ethnicity. Available at: http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2lvlid=172. Accessed February 9, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  3. Counsel of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2007. Position Statements 2007 ID-03: Revision of the National Surveillance Case Definition for Ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichiosis/Anaplasmosis). Available at: http://www.cste.org/ps/2007ps/2007psfinal/id/07-id-03.pdf. Accessed December 8, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  4. Counsel of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, 2009. Position Statement 09-ID-16: Public Health Reporting and National Notification for Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis (Including Rocky Mountain spotted fever). Available at: http://www.cste.org/ps2009/09-ID-16.pdf. Accessed November 24, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  5. Moonesinghe R, Zhu J, Truman BI, , 2011. Health insurance coverage—United States, 2004 and 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60: 3537. [Google Scholar]
  6. Openshaw JJ, Swerdlow DL, Krebs JW, Holman RC, Mandel E, Harvey A, Haberling D, Massung RF, McQuiston JH, , 2010. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the United States, 2000–2007: interpreting contemporary increases in incidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 174182.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Dahlgren FS, Mandel E, Krebs J, Massung RF, McQuiston JH, . Increasing incidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the United States: 2000 through 2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 85: 124131.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. National Center for Health Statistics, 2009. Postcensal Estimates of the Resident Population of the United States for July 1, 2000–July 1, 2008 by Year, County, Age, Bridged Race, Hispanic Origin, and Sex (Vintage 2008). Prepared Under a Collaborative Arrangement with the U.S. Census Bureau. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss/bridged_race.htm. Accessed March 29, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  9. Mantel N, Haenszel W, , 1959. Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. J Natl Cancer Inst 22: 719748. [Google Scholar]
  10. Nurminen M, , 1981. Asymptotic efficiency of general non-iterative estimators of common relative risk. Biometrika 68: 525530.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Lambert D, , 1992. Zero-inflated Poisson regression, with an application to defects in manufacturing. Technometrics 34: 114.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005. Racial disparities in nationally notifiable diseases—United States, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 54: 911. [Google Scholar]
  13. Hall HI, Hughes D, Dean HD, Mermin JH, Fenton KA, , 2011. HIV infection—United States, 2005 and 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 60: 8789. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 15 Jul 2011
  • Accepted : 07 Sep 2011
  • Published online : 01 Dec 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error