Volume 85, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Vector control programs could be more efficient by identifying the location of highly productive sites of . This study explored if the number of female adults of in BG-Sentinel traps was clustered and if their spatial distribution changed in time in two neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Traps were uniformly distributed across each neighborhood (130 m from each other), and samples were taken every 3 weeks. Global and local spatial autocorrelations were explored. Spatial stability existed if the rank order of trap captures was kept in time. There was lack of global autocorrelation in both neighborhoods, precluding their stratification for control purposes. Hot and cold spots were identified, revealing the highly focal nature of . There was significant spatial stability throughout the study in both locations. The consistency in trap productivity in time could be used to increase the effectiveness of vector and dengue control programs.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Carbajo AE, Gomez SM, Curto SI, Schweigmann NJ, , 2004. Spatio-temporal variability in the transmission of dengue in Buenos Aires City. Medicina (B Aires) 64: 231234. [Google Scholar]
  2. Fernandes MT, Da Costa Silva W, Souza-Santos R, , 2008. Identification of key areas for Aedes aegypti control through geoprocessing in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 24: 7080.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Souza-Santos R, Carvalo MS, , 2000. Spatial analysis of Aedes aegypti larval distribution in the Ilha do Governador neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 16: 3142.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Barrera R, Delgado N, Jiménez M, Villalobos I, Romero I, , 2000. Stratification of a hyper endemic dengue hemorrhagic fever city. Pan Am J Public Health 8: 225233.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Flauzino RF, Souza-Santos R, Oliveira RM, , 2009. Dengue, geoprocessamento e indicadores socioeconômicos e ambientais: um estudo de revisão. Rev Panam Salud Publica 25: 456461.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Martinez TTP, Rojas LI, Valdes LS, Remond R, , 2003. Vulnerabilidad espacial al dengue. Una aplicación de los sistemas de información geográfica en el municipio Playa de Ciudad de La Habana. Rev Cubana Salud Publica 29: 353365. [Google Scholar]
  7. Mondini A, Chiaravalloti-Neto F, Sanches MGU, Lopes JCC, , 2005. Spatial analysis of dengue transmission in a medium-sized city in Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 39: 444451.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Wen TH, Lin NH, Lin CH, King CC, Su MD, , 2006. Spatial mapping of temporal risk characteristics to improve environmental health risk identification: a case study of a dengue epidemic in Taiwan. Sci Total Environ 367: 631640.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Barrera R, Delgado N, Jiménez M, Valero S, , 2002. Eco-epidemiological factors associated with hyperendemic dengue haemorrhagic fever in Maracay City, Venezuela. Dengue Bull 26: 8495. [Google Scholar]
  10. Gómez Dantés H, Ramos Bonifaz B, Tapia Conyer R, , 1995. El riesgo de transmisión del dengue: un espacio para la estratificación. Salud Publica Mex 37 (Suppl): 8897. [Google Scholar]
  11. Woolhouse MEJ, Dye C, Etard JF, Smith T, Charlwood JD, Garnett GP, Hagan P, Hii JLK, Ndhlovu PD, Wuinnell RJ, Watts CH, Chandiwana SK, Anderson RM, , 1997. Heterogeneities in the transmission of infectious agents: implications for the design of control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94: 338342.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Getis A, Morrison AC, Gray K, Scott TW, , 2003. Characteristics of the spatial pattern of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, in Iquitos, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 494505. [Google Scholar]
  13. Chansang C, Kittayapong P, , 2007. Application of mosquito sampling count and geospatial methods to improve dengue vector surveillance. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 820826. [Google Scholar]
  14. Halstead SB, Scanlon JE, Umpaivit P, Udomsakdi S, , 1969. Dengue and Chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962–1964 (IV. Epidemiologic studies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area). Am J Trop Med Hyg 18: 9971021. [Google Scholar]
  15. Waterman SH, Novak RJ, Sather GE, Bailey RE, Rios I, Gubler DJ, , 1985. Dengue transmission in two Puerto Rican communities in 1982. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 625632. [Google Scholar]
  16. Morrison AC, Getis A, Santiago M, Rigau-Perez JG, Reiter P, , 1998. Exploratory space-time analysis of reported dengue cases during an outbreak in Florida, Puerto Rico, 1991–1992. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 287298. [Google Scholar]
  17. Tran A, Deparis X, Dussart P, Morvan J, Rabarison P, Remy F, Polidori L, Gardon J, , 2004. Dengue spatial and temporal patterns, French Guiana. 2001. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 615621.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Strickman D, Kittayapong P, , 2002. Dengue and its vectors in Thailand: introduction to the study and seasonal distribution of Aedes larvae. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 247259. [Google Scholar]
  19. Barrera R, Amador M, Clark GG, , 2006. Application of the Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) pupal survey technique in Puerto Rico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 290302. [Google Scholar]
  20. Vazquez-Prokopec GM, Kitron U, Montgomery B, Horne P, Ritchie SA, , 2010. Quantifying the spatial dimension of dengue virus epidemic spread within a tropical urban environment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e920.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Harrington LC, Buonaccorsi JP, Edman JD, Costero A, Kittayapong P, Clark GG, Sott TW, , 2001. Analysis of survival of young and old Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Puerto Rico and Thailand. J Med Entomol 38: 537547.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Moran PAP, , 1950. Notes on continuous stochastic phenomena. Biometrika 37: 1733.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Ord JK, Getis A, , 1995. Local spatial autocorrelation statistics: distributional issues and an application. Geogr Anal 27: 286306.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Sciarretta A, Girma M, Tikubet G, Belayehun L, Ballo S, Baumgärtner J, , 2005. Development of an adaptive tsetse population management scheme for the Luke Community, Ethiopia. J Med Entomol 42: 10061019.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Williams CR, Long SA, Webb CE, Bitzhenner M, Geier M, Russell RC, Ritchie SA, , 2007. Aedes aegypti population sampling using BG-Sentinel traps in North Queensland Australia: statistical considerations for trap deployment and sampling strategy. J Med Entomol 44: 345350.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Russell RC, Webb CE, Williams CR, Ritchie SA, , 2005. Mark–release–recapture study to measure dispersal of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in Cairns, Queensland, Australia. Med Vet Entomol 19: 451457.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Sheppard PM, Macdonald WW, Tonn RJ, Grab B, , 1969. The dynamics of an adult population of Aedes aegypti in relation to dengue haemorrhagic fever in Bangkok. J Anim Ecol 38: 661702.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Reiter P, Amador MA, Anderson RA, Clark GG, , 1995. Short report: dispersal of Aedes aegypti in an urban area after blood feeding as demonstrated by rubidium-marked eggs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 177179. [Google Scholar]
  29. Maciel-de-Freitas R, Peres RC, Souza-Santos R, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, , 2008. Occurrence, productivity and spatial distribution of key-premises in two dengue endemic areas of Rio de Janeiro and their role in adult Aedes aegypti spatial infestation pattern. Trop Med Int Health 13: 14881494.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Mammen MP, Pimgate C, Koenraadt CJM, Rothman AL, Aldstadt J, Nisalak A, Jarman RG, Jones JW, Sridiatkhachorn A, Ypil-Butac CA, Getis A, Thammapalo S, Morrison AC, Libraty DH, Green S, Scott TW, , 2008. Spatial and temporal clustering of dengue virus transmission in Thai villages. PLoS Med 5: 16051616.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Kittayapong P, Yoksan S, Chansang U, Chansang C, Bhumiratana A, , 2008. Suppression of dengue transmission by application of integrated vector control strategies at sero-positive GIS-based foci. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 7076. [Google Scholar]
  32. Thai KTD, Nagelkerken N, Phuong HL, Nga TTT, Giao PT, Hung LQ, Binh TQ, Nam NV, De Vries PJ, , 2010. Geographical heterogeneity of dengue transmission in two villages in southern Vietnam. Epidemiol Infect 138: 585591.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Sciarretta A, Tikubet G, Baumgärtner J, Girma M, Trematerra P, , 2010. Spatial clustering and associations of two savannah tsetse species, Glossina morsitans submorsitans and Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae), for guiding interventions in an adaptive cattle health management framework. Bull Entomol Res 100: 661670.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Barrera R, Amador M, Diaz A Smith J, Muñoz-Jordan JL, Rosario Y, , 2008. Unusual productivity of Aedes aegypti in septic tanks and its implications for dengue control. Med Vet Entomol 22: 6269.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 Jun 2011
  • Accepted : 16 Jul 2011
  • Published online : 01 Dec 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error