1921
Volume 85, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) is an allergic eye disease and an important cause of hospital referral among children in Africa and Asia. Hospital-based studies have suggested a role for parasites in its pathogenesis. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for VKC in Central Africa, we conducted a nested population-based case control study in Rwanda, involving randomly selected primary schools from different environments (rural/urban) and climate. A prevalence of VKC of 4.0% (95% confidence interval 3.3–4.7%) was found among 3,041 children studied (participation rate 94.7%). The intestinal parasitic burden was not related to VKC. Besides hot dry climate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, = 0.05) and male gender (OR = 1.7, = 0.005), multivariate analysis identified higher economic status as a risk for VKC (OR = 1.4, = 0.005). The effect on VKC of higher economic status appears not to act through differences in parasitic intestinal load.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0291
2011-10-01
2019-05-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/4/711.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0291&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Tabbara KF, , 1999. Ocular complications of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Can J Ophthalmol 34: 8892. [Google Scholar]
  2. Cameron JA, , 1995. Shield ulcers and plaques of the cornea in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmology 102: 985993.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Dahan E, Appel R, , 1983. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in the black child and its response to therapy. Br J Ophthalmol 67: 688692.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. BenEzra D, Pe'er J, Brodsky M, Cohen E, , 1986. Cyclosporine eye drops for the treatment of severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol 101: 278282.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Chenge B, Makumyamviri AM, Kaimbo WA, Kaimbo D, , 2003. Tropical endemic limbo-conjunctivitis in Lúbumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol 290: 916. [Google Scholar]
  6. Diallo JS, , 1976. Tropical endemic limboconjunctivitis. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop 53: 7180. [Google Scholar]
  7. Khan MD, Kundi N, Saeed N, Gulab A, Nazeer AF, , 1986. A study of 530 cases of vernal conjunctivitis from the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Pakistan J Ophthalmol 2: 111114. [Google Scholar]
  8. Resnikoff S, Cornand G, Filliard G, Hugard L, , 1988. Limbal vernal conjunctivitis in the tropics. Rev Int Trach 3-4: 5371. [Google Scholar]
  9. Bonini S, Bonini S, Lambiase A, Marchi S, Pasqualetti P, Zuccaro O, Rama P, Magrini L, Juhas T, Bucci MG, , 2000. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis revisited. A case series of 195 patients with long-term followup. Ophthalmology 107: 11571163.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Yemaneberhan H, Bekele Z, Venn A, Lewis S, Parry E, Britton J, , 1997. Prevalence of wheeze and asthma and relation to atopy in urban and rural Ethiopia. Lancet 350: 8590.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Viinanen A, Munhbayarlah S, Zevgee T, Narantsetseg L, Naidansuren T, Koskenvuo M, Helenius H, Terho EO, , 2007. The protective effect of rural living against atopy in Mongolia. Allergy 62: 272280.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Warrell DA, Fawcett IW, Harrison BD, Agamah AJ, Ibu JO, Pope HM, Maberly DJ, , 1975. Bronchial asthma in the Nigerian Savanna Region. Quarterly J Med New Series XLIV: 325347. [Google Scholar]
  13. Carswell F, Merrett J, Merrett TG, Meakins RH, Harland PS, , 1977. IgE, parasites and asthma in Tanzanian children. Clin Allergy 7: 445453.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Godfrey RC, , 1975. Asthma and IgE levels in rural and urban communities in The Gambia. Clin Allergy 5: 201207.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Merrett TG, Merrett J, Cookson JB, , 1976. Allergy and parasites: the measurement of total and specific IgE levels in urban and rural communities in Rhodesia. Clin Allergy 6: 131134.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Dold S, Heinrich J, Wichmann H-E, Wjst M, , 1998. Ascaris-specific IgE and allergic sensitization in a cohort of school children in the former East Germany. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 414420.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Sandford-Smith J, , 1979. Vernal eye disease in Northern Nigeria. Trop Geogr Med 31: 321328. [Google Scholar]
  18. Ajaiyeoba A, , 2005. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis and intestinal parasitic infestations in black children. J Natl Med Assoc 97: 15291532. [Google Scholar]
  19. Munyakazi A, Ntagaramba JF, , 2005. Atlas of Rwanda. Oxford: MacMillan. [Google Scholar]
  20. Glewwe P, Grosh M, , 2000. Designing household survey questionnaires for developing countries: lessons from 15 years of the living standards measurement study. Washington, DC: World Bank. [Google Scholar]
  21. Rischewski D, Kuper H, Atijosan O, Simms V, Jofret-Bonet M, Foster A, Lavy C, , 2008. Poverty and musculoskeletal impairment in Rwanda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 608617.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Lee T, Anderson S, , 1985. Heterogeneity of mechanisms in exercise induced asthma. Thorax 40: 481487.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Hanifin J, Rajka G, , 1980. Diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol 92: 4447. [Google Scholar]
  24. Loughlin EH, Spitz SH, , 1949. Diagnosis of helminthiasis. JAMA 139: 9971000.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Bremond-Gignac D, Donadieu J, Leonardi A, Pouliquen P, Doan S, Chiambarretta F, Montan P, Milazzo S, Hoang-Xuan T, Baudouin C, Aymé S, , 2008. Prevalence of vernal keratoconjunctivitis: a rare disease? Br J Ophthalmol 92: 10971102.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Everaerts M-C, Doutetien C, , 1993. Chronic tropical endemic limboconjunctivitis (TELC) in southern Benin: epidemiological and meteorological data. Rev Int Trach Pathol Ocul Trop Subtrop Sante Publique 70: 199214. [Google Scholar]
  27. The Government of Rwanda K, 2003. Third General Census of Population and Housing of Rwanda. Final results: statistical tables. [Google Scholar]
  28. Hugg T, Ruotsalainen R, Jaakkloa MS, Pushkarev V, Jaakkola JJK, , 2008. Comparison of allergic diseases, symptoms and respiratory infections between Finnish and Russian school children. Eur J Epidemiol 23: 123133.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Nicolaou N, Siddique N, Custovic A, , 2005. Allergic disease in urban and rural populations: increasing prevalence with increasing urbanization. Allergy 60: 13571360.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Weinberg EG, Van Niekerk CH, Shore SC, Heese HD, Van Schalkwyk DJ, , 1977. Prevalence of asthma. Lancet 2: 500.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Abdurrahman MB, Taqi AM, , 1982. Childhood bronchial asthma in northern Nigeria. Clin Allergy 12: 379384.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Macfarlane JT, Bachelor M, Ridyard JB, Ball PA, , 1979. Asthma, IgE and environment in northern Nigeria. Clin Allergy 9: 333337.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Zeyrek CD, Zeyrek F, Sevinc E, Demir E, , 2006. Prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in Sanliurfa, Turkey, and the relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: is the hygiene hypothesis enough? J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 16: 290295. [Google Scholar]
  34. Scrivener S, Yemaneberhan H, Zebenigus M, Tilahun D, Girma S, Ali S, McElroy P, Custovic A, Woodcock A, Pritchard D, Venn A, Britton J, , 2001. Independent effects of intestinal parasite infection and domestic allergen exposure on risk of wheeze in Ethiopia: a nested case-control study. Lancet 358: 14931499.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Mitchell HS, , 1970. Bronchial asthma in Kenya. East Afr Med J 47: 142145. [Google Scholar]
  36. Turton JA, , 1976. IgE, parasites, and allergy. Lancet 25: 686.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Hodges MG, Keane-Myers AM, , 2007. Classification of ocular allergy. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 7: 424428.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  38. McConchie BW, Norris HH, Bundoc VG, Trivedi S, Boesen A, Urban JF, Keane-Myers AM, , 2006. Ascaris suum-derived products suppress mucosal allergic inflammation in an interleukin-10-independent manner via interference with dendritic cell function. Infect Immun 74: 66326641.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Orren A, Dowdle EB, , 1975. Effects of allergy, intestinal helminthic infestation and sex on serum IgE concentrations and immediate skin hypersensitivity in three ethnic groups. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 49: 814830.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. Lynch NR, Palenque M, Hagel I, Diprisco MC, , 1997. Clinical improvement of asthma after anthelminthic treatment in a tropical situation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156: 5054.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  41. Alshishtawy MM, Abdella AM, Gelber LE, Chapman MD, , 1991. Asthma in Tanta, Egypt: serologic analysis of total and specific IgE antibody levels and their relationship to parasite infection. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 96: 348354.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Joubert JR, De Klerk HC, Malan C, , 1979. Ascaris lumbricoides and allergic asthma. S Afr Med J 56: 599602. [Google Scholar]
  43. Von Hertzen L, Haahtela T, , 2004. Asthma and atopy–the price of affluence? Allergy 59: 124137.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  44. Lambiase A, Minchiotti S, Leonardi A, Secchi A, Rolando M, Calabria G, Orsoni J, Zola E, Ferreri G, Aragona P, Reibaldi A, Chisari G, Bonini S, , 2009. Prospective, multicenter demographic and epidemiological study on vernal keratoconjunctivitis: a glimpse of ocular surface in Italian population. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 16: 3841.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. Ukponmwan CU, , 2003. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in Nigerians: 109 consecutive cases. Trop Doct 33: 242245.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  46. Divall SA, Radovick S, , 2009. Endocrinology of female puberty. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 16: 14.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  47. Tuft SJ, Dart JKG, Kemeny M, , 1989. Limbal vernal keratoconjunctivitis: clinical characteristics and immunoglobulin E expression compared with palpebral vernal. Eye (Lond) 3: 420427.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  48. Neumann E, Gutmann M, Blumankrantz N, Michaelson I, , 1959. A review of four hundred cases of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol 47: 166172.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  49. Tuft SJ, Cree IA, Woods M, Yorston D, , 1998. Limbal vernal keratoconjunctivitis in the tropics. Ophthalmology 105: 14891493.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  50. Kocabeyoglu S, Bozkurt B, Bilen O, Irkec M, Orhan M, , 2008. Serum allergen specific immunoglobulin E levels in patients with allergic conjunctivitis. Eur J Ophthalmol 18: 675679. [Google Scholar]
  51. Mumcuoglu Y, Zavaro A, Samra Z, Lazarowitz Z, , 1988. House dust mites and vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Ophthalmologica 196: 175181.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0291
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0291
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 May 2011
  • Accepted : 13 Jul 2011
  • Published online : 01 Oct 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error