1921
Volume 85, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Data relating to acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (APSGN) from the notifiable diseases surveillance system in the Northern Territory of Australia was extracted and analyzed. Isolates of from confirmed cases were sequence typed. From 1991 to July 2008, there were 415 confirmed cases and 23 probable cases of APSGN notified. Four hundred fifteen (94.7%) of these were Indigenous Australians and 428 (97.7%) were people living in remote or very remote locations. The median age of cases was 7 years (range 0–54). The incidence of confirmed cases was 12.5/100,000 person-years, with an incidence in Indigenous Australian children younger than 15 years of age of 94.3 cases/100,000 person-years. The overall rate ratio of confirmed cases in Indigenous Australians to non-Indigenous Australians was 53.6 (95% confidence interval 32.6–94.8). Outbreaks of disease across multiple communities occurred in 1995 ( = 68), 2000 ( = 55), and 2005 ( = 87 [confirmed cases]). Various types of were isolated from cases of APSGN including some types not previously recognized to be nephritogenic. The widespread outbreak in 2005 was caused by 55.0 . Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis continues to occur in remote Indigenous communities in Australia at rates comparable to or higher than those estimated in developing countries. Improvements in preventative and outbreak control strategies are needed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0185
2011-10-01
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/4/703.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0185&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Rodriguez-Iturbe B, Musser JM, , 2008. The current state of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. J Am Soc Nephrol 19: 18551864.[Crossref]
  2. Svartman M, Finklea JF, Earle DP, Potter EV, Poon-King T, , 1972. Epidemic scabies and acute glomerulonephritis in Trinidad. Lancet 1: 249251.[Crossref]
  3. Berrios X, Lagomarsino E, Solar E, Sandoval G, Guzman B, Riedel I, , 2004. Post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis in Chile–20 years of experience. Pediatr Nephrol 19: 306312.[Crossref]
  4. Yap HK, Chia KS, Murugasu B, Saw AH, Tay JS, Ikshuvanam M, Tan KW, Cheng HK, Tan CL, Lim CH, , 1990. Acute glomerulonephritis–changing patterns in Singapore children. Pediatr Nephrol 4: 482484.[Crossref]
  5. Zhang Y, Shen Y, Feld LG, Stapleton FB, , 1994. Changing pattern of glomerular disease at Beijing Children's Hospital. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 33: 542547.[Crossref]
  6. Coppo R, Gianoglio B, Porcellini MG, Maringhini S, , 1998. Frequency of renal diseases and clinical indications for renal biopsy in children (report of the Italian National Registry of Renal Biopsies in Children). Group of Renal Immunopathology of the Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology and Group of Renal Immunopathology of the Italian Society of Nephrology. Nephrol Dial Transplant 13: 293297.[Crossref]
  7. Carapetis JR, Steer AC, Mulholland EK, Weber M, , 2005. The global burden of group A streptococcal diseases. Lancet Infect Dis 5: 685694.[Crossref]
  8. Blyth CC, Robertson PW, Rosenberg AR, , 2007. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in Sydney: a 16-year retrospective review. J Paediatr Child Health 43: 446450.[Crossref]
  9. Streeton CL, Hanna JN, Messer RD, Merianos A, , 1995. An epidemic of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis among aboriginal children. J Paediatr Child Health 31: 245248.[Crossref]
  10. Gogna NK, Nossar V, Walker AC, , 1983. Epidemic of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis in aboriginal communities. Med J Aust 1: 6466.
  11. Evans C, , 2001. Acute post sreptococcal glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory 1980–2000. NT Dis Control Bull 8: 140.
  12. Kearns T, Evans C, Krause V, , 2001. Outbreak of acute post streptococcal glomerulonephritis in the Northern Territory—2000. NT Dis Control Bulletin 8: 614.
  13. Rammelkamp CH, Jr Weaver RS, , 1953. Acute glomerulonephritis, the significance of the variations in the incidence of the disease. J Clin Invest 32: 345358.[Crossref]
  14. McDonald MI, Towers RJ, Andrews R, Benger N, Fagan P, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, , 2007. The dynamic nature of group A streptococcal epidemiology in tropical communities with high rates of rheumatic heart disease. Epidemiol Infect 136: 529539.
  15. McDonald MI, Towers RJ, Fagan P, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, , 2007. Molecular typing of Streptococcus pyogenes from remote Aboriginal communities where rheumatic fever is common and pyoderma is the predominant streptococcal infection. Epidemiol Infect 135: 13981405.[Crossref]
  16. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2006. Australia's Health 2006. AIHW, ed. cat. no. AUS 73: AIHW. Available at: http://www.aihw.gov.au/publications/index.cfm/title/10321. Accessed December 8, 2008.
  17. GISCA, 2008. About ARIA+ (Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia). Available at: http://www.gisca.adelaide.edu.au/products_services/ariav2_about.html. Accessed October 20, 2008.
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011. Streptococcus pyogenes emm sequence database. Atlanta, GA. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/biotech/strep/strepblast.htm. Accessed June 13, 2011.
  19. Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009. Australia's Population: Australian Bureau of Statistics. Available at: http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/D3310114.nsf/home/Home. Accessed August 30, 2009.
  20. Lennon D, Martin D, Wong E, Taylor LR, , 1988. Longitudinal study of poststreptococcal disease in Auckland; rheumatic fever, glomerulonephritis, epidemiology and M typing 1981–86. N Z Med J 101: 396398.
  21. Carapetis JR, Wolff DR, Currie BJ, , 1996. Acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in the top end of Australia's Northern Territory. Med J Aust 164: 146149.
  22. Holm SE, Nordstrand A, Stevens DL, Norgren M, Stevens DL, Kaplan EL, , 2000. Acute postreptococcal glomerulonephritis. , eds. Streptococcal Infections: Clinical Aspects, Microbiology and Molecular Patheogenesis. New York: Oxford University Press, 152162.
  23. Eison TM, Ault BH, Jones DP, Chesney RW, Wyatt RJ, , 2011. Post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis in children: clinical features and pathogenesis. Pediatr Nephrol 26: 165180.[Crossref]
  24. White AV, Hoy WE, McCred DA, , 2001. Childhood post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis as a risk factor for chronic renal disease in later life. MJA 174: 492496.
  25. Hoy WE, Mathews JD, McCredie DA, Pugsley DJ, Hayhurst BG, Rees M, Kile E, Walker KA, Wang Z, , 1998. The multidimensional nature of renal disease: rates and associations of albuminuria in an Australian Aboriginal community. Kidney Int 54: 12961304.[Crossref]
  26. Carapetis JR, Connors C, Yarmirr D, Krause V, Currie BJ, , 1997. Success of a scabies control program in an Australian aboriginal community. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16: 494499.[Crossref]
  27. McDonald MI, Towers RJ, Andrews RM, Benger N, Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, , 2006. Low rates of streptococcal pharyngitis and high rates of pyoderma in Australian aboriginal communities where acute rheumatic fever is hyperendemic. Clin Infect Dis 43: 683689.[Crossref]
  28. Andrews R, Kearns T, Connors C, Parker C, Carville K, Currie B, Carapetis J, , 2009. A regional initiative to reduce skin infections among aboriginal children living in remote communities of the Northern Territory, Australia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e554.[Crossref]
  29. Reid HF, Bassett DC, Gaworzewska E, Colman G, Poon-King T, , 1990. Streptococcal serotypes newly associated with epidemic post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis. J Med Microbiol 32: 111114.[Crossref]
  30. Tewodros W, Kronvall G, , 2005. M protein gene (emm Type) analysis of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci from Ethiopia reveals unique patterns. J Clin Microbiol 43: 43694376.[Crossref]
  31. Wannamaker LW, , 1970. Differences between streptococcal infections of the throat and of the skin (second of two parts). N Engl J Med 282: 2331.[Crossref]
  32. Martin DR, Meekin GE, Finch LA, , 1983. Streptococci–are they different in New Zealand? N Z Med J 96: 298301.
  33. Anthony B, Kaplan E, Chapman S, Quie P, Wannamaker L, , 1967. Epidemic acute nephritis with reappearance of type 49 Streptococcus . Lancet 2: 787790.[Crossref]
  34. Majeed HA, Yousof AM, Rotta J, Havlickpva H, Bahar G, Bahbahani K, , 1992. Group A streptococcal strains in Kuwait: a nine-year prospective study of prevalence and associations. Pediatr Infect Dis J 11: 295300.[Crossref]
  35. Potter EV, Ortiz JS, Sharrett AR, Burt EG, Bray JP, Finklea JF, Poon-King T, Earle DP, , 1971. Changing types of nephritogenic streptococci in Trinidad. J Clin Invest 50: 11971205.[Crossref]
  36. McNeil SA, Halperin SA, Langley JM, Smith B, Warren A, Sharratt GP, Baxendale DM, Reddish MA, Hu MC, Stroop SD, Linden J, Fries LF, Vink PE, Dale JB, , 2005. Safety and immunogenicity of 26-valent group a Streptococcus vaccine in healthy adult volunteers. Clin Infect Dis 41: 11141122.[Crossref]
  37. Steer AC, Law I, Matatolu L, Beall BW, Carapetis JR, , 2009. Global emm type distribution of group A streptococci: systematic review and implications for vaccine development. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 611616.[Crossref]
  38. Balter S, Benin A, Pinto SW, Teixeira LM, Alvim GG, Luna E, Jackson D, LaClaire L, Elliott J, Facklam R, Schuchat A, , 2000. Epidemic nephritis in Nova Serrana, Brazil. Lancet 355: 17761780.[Crossref]
  39. Barnham M, Thornton TJ, Lange K, , 1983. Nephritis caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C). Lancet 1: 945948.[Crossref]
  40. McDonald M, Towers RJ, Andrews RM, Carapetis JR, Currie BJ, , 2007. Epidemiology of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. tropical communities, Northern Australia. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 16941700.[Crossref]
  41. Williams GS, , 2003. Group C and G streptococci infections: emerging challenges. Clin Lab Sci 16: 209213.
  42. Bailie RS, Stevens M, McDonald E, Halpin S, Brewster D, Robinison G, Guthridge S, , 2005. Skin infection, housing and social circumstances in children living in remote Indigenous communities: testing and methodological approaches. BMC Public Health 5: 128.[Crossref]
  43. Gracey M, Williams P, Houston S, , 1997. Environmental health conditions in remote and rural aboriginal communities in western Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health 21: 511518.[Crossref]
  44. Currie BJ, Carapetis JR, , 2000. Skin infections and infestations in Aboriginal communities in northern Australia. Australas J Dermatol 41: 139143.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0185
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0185
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 29 Mar 2011
  • Accepted : 14 Jul 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error