1921
Volume 85, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been known to occur in Mexico since the 1960s. The first natural equine epizootic was recognized in Chiapas in 1993 and since then, numerous studies have characterized the etiologic strains, including reverse genetic studies that incriminated a specific mutation that enhanced infection of epizootic mosquito vectors. The aim of this study was to determine the mosquito and rodent species involved in enzootic maintenance of subtype IE VEEV in coastal Chiapas. A longitudinal study was conducted over a year to discern which species and habitats could be associated with VEEV circulation. Antibody was rarely detected in mammals and virus was not isolated from mosquitoes. Additionally, () populations were found to be spatially related to high levels of human and bovine seroprevalence. These mosquito populations were concentrated in areas that appear to represent foci of stable, enzootic VEEV circulation.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0094
2011-12-01
2017-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/6/1146.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0094&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. de Mucha Macias J, , 1963. Epidemiologic studies on arbor virus in the southeast of Mexico. Salud Publica Mex 27: 523527.
  2. Griffin DE, Knipe DM, , 2007. Alphaviruses. , ed. Fields Virology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Williams, 10231067.
  3. Ferro C, Boshell J, Moncayo AC, Gonzalez M, Ahumada ML, Kang W, Weaver SC, , 2003. Natural enzootic vectors of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Magdalena Valley, Colombia. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 4954.[Crossref]
  4. Galindo P, Grayson MA, , 1971. Culex (Melanoconion) aikenii: natural vector in Panama of endemic Venezuelan encephalitis. Science 172: 594595.[Crossref]
  5. Oberste MS, Fraire M, Navarro R, Zepeda C, Zarate ML, Ludwig GV, Kondig JF, Weaver SC, Smith JF, Rico-Hesse R, , 1998. Association of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype IE with two equine epizootics in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 100107.
  6. Brault AC, Powers AM, Weaver SC, , 2002. Vector infection determinants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus reside within the E2 envelope glycoprotein. J Virol 76: 63876392.[Crossref]
  7. Kramer LD, Scherer WF, , 1976. Vector competence of mosquitoes as a marker to distinguish Central American and Mexican epizootic from enzootic strains of Venezuelan encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 336346.
  8. Peyton EL, Reinert JF, Peterson NE, , 1964. The occurrence of Deinocerites pseudes Dyar and Knab in the United States, with additional notes on the biology of Deinocerites species of Texas. Mosq News 24: 449458.
  9. Cupp EW, Scherer WF, Lok JB, Brenner RJ, Dziem GM, Ordonez JV, , 1986. Entomological studies at an enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus focus in Guatemala, 1977–1980. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 851859.
  10. Cupp EW, Scherer WF, Ordonez JV, , 1979. Transmission of Venezuelan encephalitis virus by naturally infected Culex (Melanoconion) opisthopus . Am J Trop Med Hyg 28: 10601063.
  11. Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Freier JE, Cordova D, Clements T, Moncayo A, Kang W, Gomez-Hernandez C, Rodriguez-Dominguez G, Ludwig GV, Weaver SC, , 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21132121.[Crossref]
  12. Brault AC, Powers AM, Ortiz D, Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Weaver SC, , 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis emergence: enhanced vector infection from a single amino acid substitution in the envelope glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 1134411349.[Crossref]
  13. Weaver SC, Ferro C, Barrera R, Boshell J, Navarro JC, , 2004. Venezuelan equine encephalitis. Annu Rev Entomol 49: 141174.[Crossref]
  14. Barrera R, Ferro C, Navarro JC, Freier J, Liria J, Salas R, Ahumada M, Vasquez C, Gonzalez M, Kang W, Boshell J, Weaver SC, , 2002. Contrasting sylvatic foci of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in northern South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 324334.
  15. Salas RA, Garcia CZ, Liria J, Barrera R, Navarro JC, Medina G, Vasquez C, Fernandez Z, Weaver SC, , 2001. Ecological studies of enzootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in north-central Venezuela, 1997–1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 8492.
  16. Scherer WF, Dickerman RW, Cupp EW, Ordonez JV, , 1985. Ecologic observations of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in vertebrates and isolations of Nepuyo and Patois viruses from sentinel hamsters at Pacific and Atlantic habitats in Guatemala, 1968–1980. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 790798.
  17. Carrara AS, Coffey LL, Aguilar PV, Moncayo AC, Da Rosa AP, Nunes MR, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, , 2007. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection of cotton rats. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 11581165.[Crossref]
  18. Coffey LL, Carrara AS, Paessler S, Haynie ML, Bradley RD, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, , 2004. Experimental Everglades virus infection of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Emerg Infect Dis 10: 21822188.[Crossref]
  19. Young NA, Johnson KM, Gauld LW, , 1969. Viruses of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex. Experimental infection of Panamanian rodents. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18: 290296.
  20. Bowen GS, , 1976. Experimental infection of North American mammals with epidemic Venezuelan encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 891899.
  21. Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, Schmidt N, Emmons R, , 1989. Arboviruses. , eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797855.
  22. Sanchez-Seco MP, Rosario D, Quiroz E, Guzman G, Tenorio A, , 2001. A generic nested-RT-PCR followed by sequencing for detection and identification of members of the alphavirus genus. J Virol Methods 95: 153161.[Crossref]
  23. Pierre V, Drouet MT, Deubel V, , 1994. Identification of mosquito-borne flavivirus sequences using universal primers and reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction. Res Virol 145: 93104.[Crossref]
  24. Clarke DH, Casals J, , 1958. Techniques for hemagglutination and hemagglutination-inhibition with arthropod-borne viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7: 561573.
  25. Calisher CH, Shope RE, Brandt W, Casals J, Karabatsos N, Murphy FA, Tesh RB, Wiebe ME, , 1980. Proposed antigenic classification of registered arboviruses I. Togaviridae, Alphavirus . Intervirology 14: 229232.[Crossref]
  26. Farfan-Ale JA, Lorono-Pino MA, Garcia-Rejon JE, Soto V, Lin M, Staley M, Dorman KS, Bartholomay LC, Hovav E, Blitvich BJ, , 2010. Detection of flaviviruses and orthobunyaviruses in mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico in 2008. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 10: 777783.[Crossref]
  27. Reid FA, , 1997. A Field Guide to the Mammals of Central America and Southeast Mexico. New York: Oxford University Press.
  28. Boakye DA, Tang J, Truc P, Merriweather A, Unnasch TR, , 1999. Identification of bloodmeals in haematophagous Diptera by cytochrome B heteroduplex analysis. Med Vet Entomol 13: 282287.[Crossref]
  29. Bradley RD, Henson DD, Durish ND, , 2008. Re-evaluation of the geographic distribution and phylogeography of the Sigmodon Hispidus complex based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Southwest Nat 53: 301310.[Crossref]
  30. Scherer WF, Dickerman RW, La Fiandra RP, Wong Chia C, Terrian J, , 1971. Ecologic studies of Venezuelan encephalitis virus in southeastern Mexico. IV. Infections of wild mammals. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20: 980988.
  31. Deardorff ER, Forrester NL, Travassos da Rosa AP, Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, , 2010. Experimental infections of Oryzomys couesi with sympatric arboviruses from Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 350353.[Crossref]
  32. Deardorff ER, Weaver SC, , 2010. Vector competence of Culex (Melanoconion) taeniopus for equine-virulent subtype IE strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 10471052.[Crossref]
  33. Galindo P, Srihongse S, De Rodaniche E, Grayson MA, , 1966. An ecological survey for arboviruses in Almirante, Panama, 1959–1962. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15: 385400.
  34. Scherer WF, Dickerman RW, Ordonez JV, Seymour C, 3rd Kramer LD, Jahrling PB, Powers CD, , 1976. Ecologic studies of Venezuelan encephalitis virus and isolations of Nepuyo and Patois viruses during 1968–1973 at a marsh habitat near the epicenter of the 1969 outbreak in Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 151162.
  35. Sudia WD, Newhouse VF, Beadle ID, Miller DL, Johnston JG, Jr Young R, Calisher CH, Maness K, , 1975. Epidemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in North America in 1971: vector studies. Am J Epidemiol 101: 1735.[Crossref]
  36. Ortiz DI, Anishchenko M, Weaver SC, , 2005. Susceptibility of Psorophora confinnis (Diptera: Culicidae) to infection with epizootic (subtype IC) and enzootic (subtype ID) Venezuelan Equine encephalitis viruses. J Med Entomol 42: 857863.[Crossref]
  37. Moncayo AC, Lanzaro G, Kang W, Orozco A, Ulloa A, Arredondo-Jimenez J, Weaver SC, , 2008. Vector competence of eastern and western forms of Psorophora columbiae (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes for enzootic and epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 413421.
  38. Turell MJ, Barth J, Coleman RE, , 1999. Potential for Central American mosquitoes to transmit epizootic and enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15: 295298.
  39. Sudia WD, Newhouse VF, Henderson BE, , 1971. Experimental infection of horses with three strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. II. Experimental vector studies. Am J Epidemiol 93: 206211.[Crossref]
  40. Gilyard RT, , 1944. Mosquito transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Trinidad. US Army Med Dep Bull 75: 96107.
  41. Mendez W, Liria J, Navarro JC, Garcia CZ, Freier JE, Salas R, Weaver SC, Barrera R, , 2001. Spatial dispersion of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a sylvatic focus of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. J Med Entomol 38: 813821.[Crossref]
  42. Turell MJ, Jones JW, Sardelis MR, Dohm DJ, Coleman RE, Watts DM, Fernandez R, Calampa C, Klein TA, , 2000. Vector competence of Peruvian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for epizootic and enzootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Med Entomol 37: 835839.[Crossref]
  43. Coffey LL, Weaver SC, , 2005. Susceptibility of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus and Culex nigripalpus for Everglades virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 1116.
  44. Turell MJ, O'Guinn ML, Navarro R, Romero G, Estrada-Franco JG, , 2003. Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. J Med Entomol 40: 306310.[Crossref]
  45. Sudia WD, Lord RD, Newhouse VF, Miller DL, Kissling RE, , 1971. Vector-host studies of an epizootic of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis in Guatemala, 1969. Am J Epidemiol 93: 137143.[Crossref]
  46. Calisher CH, McLean RG, Smith GC, Szmyd DM, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS, , 1977. Rio Grande–a new phlebotomus fever group virus from south Texas. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 9971002.
  47. Travassos da Rosa AP, Tesh RB, Pinheiro FP, Travassos da Rosa JF, Peterson NE, , 1983. Characterization of eight new phlebotomus fever serogroup arboviruses (Bunyaviridae: Phlebovirus) from the Amazon region of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 32: 11641171.
  48. Aguirre AA, McLean RG, Cook RS, Quan TJ, , 1992. Serologic survey for selected arboviruses and other potential pathogens in wildlife from Mexico. J Wildl Dis 28: 435442.[Crossref]
  49. Shope RE, , 1972. Discussion comments. Symposium on Venezuelan encephalitis virus. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, 271272.
  50. Woodall JP, , 1972. Discussion comments. Symposium on Venezuelan encephalitis virus. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization, 273274.
  51. Turner MG, Dale VH, Everham EH, , 1997. Fires, hurricanes and volcanoes: comparing large disturbances. Bioscience 47: 758768.[Crossref]
  52. Zhang M, Wang K, Wang Y, Guo C, Li B, Huang H, , 2006. Recovery of a rodent community in an agro-ecosystem after flooding. J Zool (Lond) 272: 138147.[Crossref]
  53. Deardorff ER, Forrester NL, Travassos da Rosa AP, Estrada-Franco JG, Navarro-Lopez R, Tesh RB, Weaver SC, , 2009. Experimental infections of potential Mexican reservoir hosts with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 350353.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0094
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0094
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Feb 2011
  • Accepted : 25 Jul 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error