Volume 85, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Widespread use of antibiotics may be important in the spread of antimicrobial resistance. We estimated the proportion of Lao in- and outpatients who had taken antibiotics before medical consultation by detecting antibiotic activity in their urine added to lawns of , , and . In the retrospective ( = 2,058) and prospective studies ( = 1,153), 49.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 47.4–52.0) and 36.2% (95% CI = 33.4–38.9), respectively, of Vientiane patients had urinary antibiotic activity detected. The highest frequency of estimated antibiotic pre-treatment was found in patients recruited with suspected central nervous system infections and community-acquired septicemia (both 56.8%). In Vientiane, children had a higher frequency of estimated antibiotic pre-treatment than adults (60.0% versus 46.5%; < 0.001). Antibiotic use based on patients histories was significantly less frequent than when estimated from urinary antibiotic activity ( < 0.0001).


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  • Received : 05 Feb 2011
  • Accepted : 28 Apr 2011
  • Published online : 01 Aug 2011

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