Volume 85, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



This study aims to evaluate the current seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among indigenous communities in Peninsular Malaysia and relate its association with epidemiological data. Overall seroprevalence of was 37.0% with 31.0% immunoglobulin (Ig) G, 1.8% IgM, and 4.2% seropositivity for both anti- antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that age above 12 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.75–4.04, < 0.001), using untreated river and mountain water supplies (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01–2.40, = 0.050), and close proximity with cats (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10–1.76, = 0.010) were factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Given the high seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among these communities who live in poor socioeconomic conditions, a comprehensive health surveillance program and screening should be initiated among women of childbearing age and pregnant women during the antenatal period for early diagnosis and treatment. The role of domestic cats and environmental contamination with oocyst in soil and water has to be highlighted and addressed in future prevention strategies for these communities.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Lin YL, Liao YS, Liao LR, Chen FN, Kuo HM, He S, , 2008. Seroprevalence and sources of Toxoplasma infection among indigenous and immigrant pregnant women in Taiwan. Parasitol Res 103: 6774.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Segundo GR, Silva DA, Mineo JR, Ferreira MS, , 2004. Congenital toxoplasmosis in Uberlandia, Brazil. J Trop Pediatr 50: 5053.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Castagnini M, Bernazzali S, Ginanneschi C, Marchi B, Maccherini M, Tsioulpas C, Tanganelli P, , 2007. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cardiac transplantation with seropositive match for Toxoplasma: should prophylaxis be extended? Transpl Immunol 18: 193197.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Barbosa CJ, Molina RJ, de Souza MB, Silva AC, Micheletti AR, dos Reis MA, de Paula Antunes Teixeira V, Silva-Vergara ML, , 2007. Disseminated toxoplasmosis presenting as sepsis in two AIDS patients. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 49: 113116.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Nissapatorn V, Kamarulzaman A, Init I, Tan LH, Rohela M, Norliza A, Chan LL, Latt HM, Anuar AK, Quek KF, , 2002. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis among HIV-infected patients and healthy blood donors. Med J Malaysia 57: 304310. [Google Scholar]
  6. Nissapatorn V, Noor Azmi MA, Cho SM, Fong MY, Init I, Rohela M, Khairul Anuar A, Quek KF, Latt HM, , 2003. Toxoplasmosis: prevalence and risk factors. J Obstet Gynaecol 23: 618624.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Nissapatorn V, Lee C, Quek KF, Leong CL, Mahmud R, Abdullah KA, , 2004. Toxoplasmosis in HIV/AIDS patients: a current situation. Jpn J Infect Dis 57: 160165. [Google Scholar]
  8. Hakim SL, Radzan T, Nazma M, , 1994. Distribution of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among Orang Asli (aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 25: 485489. [Google Scholar]
  9. Khor GK, Zalilah MS, Bose K, , 2008. The ecology of health and nutrition of Orang Asli (indigenous people) women and children in Peninsular Malaysia. In: , eds. Health and Nutritional Problems of Indigenous Populations. Kamla-Raj Enterprises. Tribes and Tribals, 6677. [Google Scholar]
  10. Romano N, Saidon I, Chow SC, Rohela M, Lim YAL, , 2011. Prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism in rural and remote West Malaysia. PloS Negl Trop Dis 5: e974.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Joynson DHM, Payne RA, Rawal BK, , 1990. Potential role of IgG avidity for diagnosing Toxoplasmosis. J Clin Pathol 43: 10321033.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Sinniah B, Thomas V, Yap PL, , 1984. Toxoplasmosis in West Malaysia population. Trop Biomed 1: 8183. [Google Scholar]
  13. Dissanaike AS, Vijayamma T, Kan SP, Ong HT, , 1977. Studies on parasitic infections in Orang Asli (Aborigines) in Peninsular Malaysia. Med J Malaysia 32: 4855. [Google Scholar]
  14. Punda-Polić V, Tonkić M, Capkun V, , 2006. Prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in the female population of the County of Split Dalmatia, Croatia. Eur J Epidemiol 16: 875877.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Fan CK, Liao CW, Wu MS, Su KE, Han BC, , 2003. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection among Chinese aboriginal and Han people residing in mountainous areas of northern Thailand. J Parasitol 89: 12391242.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Fan CK, Su KE, Chung WC, Tsai YJ, Chiou HY, Lin CF, Su CT, Tsai MC, Chao PH, , 1998. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among Atayal aboriginal people and their hunting dogs in northeastern Taiwan. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 51: 3542.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Fan CK, Su KE, Wu GH, Chiou HY, , 2002. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection among two mountain aboriginal populations and Southeast Asian laborers in Taiwan. J Parasitol 88: 411414.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Bóia MN, Carvalho-Costa FA, Sodré FC, Pinto GM, Amendoeira MR, , 2008. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among Indian people living in Iauareté, São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Amazonas, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 50: 1720.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. de la Rosa M, Bolívar J, Pérez HA, , 1999. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Amerindians of Venezuelan Amazon. Medicina (B Aires) 59: 759762. [Google Scholar]
  20. Chacin-Bonilla L, Sanchez-Chavez Y, Monsalve F, Estevez J, , 2001. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in Amerindians from western Venezuela. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 131135. [Google Scholar]
  21. Díaz-Suárez O, Parra AM, Araujo-Fernández M, , 2001. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in a marginal community of the Municipality of Maracaibo, Zulia State, Venezuela. Invest Clin 42: 107121. [Google Scholar]
  22. Díaz-Suárez O, Estévez J, García M, Cheng-Ng R, Araujo J, García M, , 2003. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in a Yucpa Amerindian community of Sierra de Perijá, Zulia State, Venezuela. Rev Med Chil 131: 10031010.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Diaz-Suárez O, Estevez J, , 2009. Seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in women of childbearing age from a marginal community of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 51: 1317.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Press C, Montoya JG, Remington JS, , 2005. Use of a single serum sample for diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and other adults. J Clin Microbiol 43: 34813483.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Reis MM, Tessaro MM, D'Azevedo PA, , 2006. Toxoplasma-IgM and IgG-avidity in single samples from areas with a high infection rate can determine the risk of mother-to-child transmission. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 48: 9398.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Lago EG, Conrado GS, Piccoli CS, Carvalho RL, Bender AL, , 2009. Toxoplasma gondii antibody profile in HIV-infected pregnant women and the risk of congenital toxoplasmosis. Eur J Clin Microbial Infect Dis 28: 345351.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Sobral CA, Amendoeira MR, Teva A, Patel BN, Klein CH, , 2005. Seroprevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in indigenous Brazilian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 3741. [Google Scholar]
  28. Apt W, Thiermann E, Niedmann G, Pasmanik S, , 1973. Toxoplasmosis. Santiago, Chile: Universidade do Chile. [Google Scholar]
  29. Amendoeira MRR, Costa T, Spalding SM, , 1999. Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle & Manceaux, 1909 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) e a toxoplasmose. Rev Sousa Marques 1: 1535. [Google Scholar]
  30. Frenkel JK, Ruiz A, , 1981. Endemicity of toxoplasmosis in Costa Rica. Am J Epidemiol 113: 254269.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Frenkel JK, , 1973. Toxoplasma in and around us. Bioscience 23: 343352.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Smith DD, Frenkel JK, , 1978. Cockroaches as vectors of Sarcocystis muris and of other coccidia in the laboratory. J Parasitol 64: 315319.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Benenson MW, Takafuji ET, Lemon SM, Greenup RL, Sulzer AJ, , 1982. Oocyst-transmitted toxoplasmosis associated with ingestion of contaminated water. N Engl J Med 307: 666669.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  34. Bowie WR, King AS, Werker DH, Isaac-Renton JL, Bell A, Eng SB, Marion SA, , 1997. Outbreak of toxoplasmosis associated with municipal drinking water. The BC Toxoplasma Investigation Team. Lancet 350: 173177.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Aramini JJ, Stephen C, Dubey JP, Engelstoft C, Schwantje H, Ribble CS, , 1999. Potential contamination of drinking water with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Epidemiol Infect 122: 305315.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Bahia-Oliveira LM, Jones JL, Azevedo-Silva J, Alves CC, Oréfice F, Addiss DG, , 2003. Highly endemic, waterborne toxoplasmosis in north Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 9: 5562.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Jones JL, Lopez B, Alvarez Mury M, Wilson M, Klein R, Luby S, Maguire JH, , 2005. Toxoplasma gondii infection in rural Guatemalan children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 295300. [Google Scholar]
  38. de Moura L, Bahia-Oliveira LM, Wada MY, Jones JL, Tuboi SH, Carmo EH, Ramalho WM, Camargo NJ, Trevisan R, Graça RM, da Silva AJ, Moura I, Dubey JP, Garrett DO, , 2006. Waterborne toxoplasmosis, Brazil, from field to gene. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 326329.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Palanisamy M, Madhavan B, Balasundaram MB, Andavar R, Venkatapathy N, , 2006. Outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis in Coimbatore, India. Indian J Ophthalmol 54: 129131.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. Sroka J, Wójcik-Fatla A, Dutkiewicz J, , 2006. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in water from wells located on farms. Ann Agric Environ Med 13: 169175. [Google Scholar]
  41. Sroka S, Bartelheimer N, Winter A, Heukelbach J, Ariza L, Ribeiro H, Oliveira FA, Queiroz AJ, Alencar C, Jr Liesenfeld O, , 2010. Prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Fortaleza, northeastern Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 528533.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Sroka J, Wojcik-Fatla A, Szymanska J, Dutkiewicz J, Zajac V, Zwolinski J, , 2010. The occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in people and animals from rural environment of Lublin region—estimate of potential role of water as a source of infection. Ann Agric Environ Med 17: 125132. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 28 Jan 2011
  • Accepted : 17 May 2011
  • Published online : 01 Oct 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error