Volume 84, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Human paragonimiasis is an emerging disease in Missouri. To characterize local parasites, we examined crayfish from three rivers. Metacercaeriae consistent with were detected in 69%, 67%, and 37% of crayfish from the Big Piney, Huzzah, and Black Rivers, respectively. Sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer and other DNA markers confirmed the species identification and the presence of identical parasite sequences in clinical specimens from two human cases. Mongolian gerbils were infected by intraperitoneal injection with 3–8 metacercariae. Most gerbils died 15–49 days post-infection. Necropsies showed pulmonary hemorrhage with necrosis, and flukes as long as 8 mm were recovered from intrathoracic tissues. Western blot analysis using antigen showed a strong antibody response in gerbils 39 days post-infection. These results demonstrate that is common in Missouri crayfish. The gerbil model may be useful for research on the pathogenesis, immunology, and treatment of paragonimiasis.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 1995. Comtrol of foodborne trematode infections. Report of a WHO study group. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser Infect Dis 849: 1e157.
  2. Lane MA, Barsanti MC, Santos CA, Yeung M, Lubner SJ, Weil GJ, , 2009. Human paragonimiasis in North America following ingestion of raw crayfish. Clin Infect Dis 49: e55e61.[Crossref]
  3. Procop GW, , 2009. North American paragonimiasis (caused by Paragonimus kellicotti) in the context of global paragonimiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 22: 415446.[Crossref]
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. Human paragonimiasis after eating raw or undercooked crayfish—Missouri, July 2006–September 2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 59: 157341576.
  5. Ameel DJ, , 1934. Paragonimus, its life history and distribution in North America and its taxonomy (Trematoda: Troglotrematidae). Am J Hyg 19: 279317.
  6. Ameel DJ, Cort WW, Van Der Woude A, , 1951. Development of the mother sporocyst and rediae of Paragonimus kellicotti Ward, 1908. J Parasitol 37: 395404.[Crossref]
  7. Bemrick WJ, Schlotthauer JC, , 1971. Paragonimus kellicotti (Ward, 1908) in a Minnesota skunk (Melphitis mephitis). J Wildl Dis 7: 36.[Crossref]
  8. Cole RA, Shoop WL, , 1987. Helminths of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) in western Kentucky. J Parasitol 73: 762768.[Crossref]
  9. Harrus S, Nyska A, Colorni A, Markovics A, , 1997. Sudden death due to Paragonimus kellicotti infection in a dog. Vet Parasitol 71: 5963.[Crossref]
  10. Kirkpatrick CE, Shelly EA, , 1985. Paragonimiasis in a dog: treatment with praziquantel. J Am Vet Med Assoc 187: 7576.
  11. McKeever S, , 1958. Observations on Paragonimus kellicotti Ward from Georgia. J Parasitol 44: 324327.[Crossref]
  12. Ramsden RO, Presidente PJ, , 1975. Paragonimus kellicotti infection in wild carnivores in southwestern Ontario: I. Prevalence and gross pathologic features. J Wildl Dis 11: 136141.[Crossref]
  13. Sogandares-Bernal F, , 1966. Studies on American paragonimiasis. IV. Observations on the pairing of adult worms in laboratory infections of domestic cats. J Parasitol 52: 701703.[Crossref]
  14. Stromberg PC, Dubey JP, , 1978. The life cycle of Paragonimus kellicotti in cats. J Parasitol 64: 9981002.[Crossref]
  15. Waitz JA, McClay P, Thompson PE, , 1964. Effects of bithionol against Paragonimus kellicotti in rats. Am J Trop Med Hyg 13: 584588.
  16. Weina PJ, Burns WC, , 1992. Mortality in Syrian hamsters infected with Paragonimus kellicotti . J Parasitol 78: 378380.[Crossref]
  17. Weina PJ, England DM, , 1990. The American lung fluke, Paragonimus kellicotti, in a cat model. J Parasitol 76: 568572.[Crossref]
  18. Ishii Y, , 1966. Differential morphology of Paragonimus kellicotti in North America. J Parasitol 52: 920925.[Crossref]
  19. Pflieger WL, , 1996. The Crayfish of Missouri. Columbia: Missouri Department of Conservation.
  20. Krueger A, Fischer P, Morales-Hojas R, , 2007. Molecular phylogeny of the filaria genus Onchocerca with special emphasis on Afrotropical human and bovine parasites. Acta Trop 101: 114.[Crossref]
  21. Stromberg PC, Toussant MJ, Dubey JP, , 1978. Population biology of Paragonimus kellicotti metacercariae in central Ohio. Parasitology 77: 1318.[Crossref]
  22. Blair D, Wu B, Chang ZS, Gong X, Agatsuma T, Zhang YN, Chen SH, Lin JX, Chen MG, Waikagul J, Guevara AG, Feng Z, Davis GM, , 1999. A molecular perspective on the genera Paragonimus Braun, Euparagonimus Chen and Pagumogonimus Chen. J Helminthol 73: 295299.
  23. Slemenda SB, Maddison SE, Jong EC, Moore DD, , 1988. Diagnosis of paragonimiasis by immunoblot. Am J Trop Med Hyg 39: 469471.
  24. Sugiyama H, Morishima Y, Kameoka Y, Kawanaka M, , 2002. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular discrimination between Paragonimus westermani and P. miyazakii at the metacercarial stage. Mol Cell Probes 16: 231236.[Crossref]
  25. Sugiyama H, Morishima Y, Rangsiruji A, Binchai S, Ketudat P, Kameoka Y, Kawanaka M, , 2005. Molecular discrimination between individual metacercariae of Paragonimus heterotremus and P. westermani occurring in Thailand. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 36 (Suppl 4): 102106.
  26. Tandon V, Prasad PK, Chatterjee A, Bhutia PT, , 2007. Surface fine topography and PCR-based determination of metacercaria of Paragonimus sp. from edible crabs in Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India. Parasitol Res 102: 2128.[Crossref]
  27. Chen MX, Ai L, Zhang RL, Xia JJ, Wang K, Chen SH, Zhang YN, Xu MJ, Li X, Zhu XQ, Chen JX, , 2010. Sensitive and rapid detection of Paragonimus westermani infection in humans and animals by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Parasitol Res Nov 25. [Epub ahead of print].
  28. Intapan PM, Wongkham C, Imtawil KJ, Pumidonming W, Prasongdee TK, Miwa M, Maleewong W, , 2005. Detection of Paragonimus heterotremus eggs in experimentally infected cats by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. J Parasitol 91: 195198.[Crossref]
  29. Yahiro S, Habe S, Duong V, Odermatt P, Barennes H, Strobel M, Nakamura S, , 2008. Identification of the human paragonimiasis causative agent in Lao People's Democratic Republic. J Parasitol 94: 11761177.[Crossref]
  30. Asavisanu R, Setasuban P, Komalamisra C, , 1985. Experimental infection of Paragonimus heterotremus metacercariae to the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 16: 344345.
  31. Webster BL, Southgate VR, Littlewood DT, , 2006. A revision of the interrelationships of Schistosoma including the recently described Schistosoma guineensis . Int J Parasitol 36: 947955.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplementary table

  • Received : 12 Jan 2011
  • Accepted : 24 Feb 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error