1921
Volume 84, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Despite the demonstrated ability of bed nets that have been factory-impregnated with long-lasting insecticides (LLINs) to protect people from malaria and despite the ambitious plans for their widespread use, the health risks from the LLINs themselves have not been adequately investigated and reported in the peer-reviewed science literature. Here, we use a probabilistic risk assessment approach to estimate the risks to Africans from inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures to the newer LLINs with permethrin, α-cypermethrin, or deltamethrin as the insecticide active ingredient. We estimated exposures to LLINs using 17 age groups to incorporate different body weights and sleeping behaviors. Risk quotients (exposure divided by toxic threshold) at the 50th and 90th percentiles for non-cancer risks were < 1.0 for lifetime adjusted risk and all youth and adult age groups. Risk quotients for infants and toddlers (0–3 years) and child groups from 3 to 10 years were ≥ 1.0 for specific bed nets.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0016
2011-06-01
2017-11-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/84/6/951.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0016&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Fegan G, Noor AM, Akhwale WS, Cousens S, Snow RW, , 2007. Effect of expanded insecticide-treated bednet coverage on child survival in rural Kenya: a longitudinal study. Lancet 370: 10351039.[Crossref]
  2. Lengeler C, deSavigny D, , 2007. Programme diversity is key to the success of insecticide-treated bednets. Lancet 370: 10091010.[Crossref]
  3. Ghebreyesus TA, Lynch MC, Coll-Seck AW, , 2008. The Global Malaria Action Plan for a Malaria-Free World. Geneva, Switzerland: Roll Back Malaria Partnership, 274.
  4. Teklehaimanot A, Sachs JD, Curtis C, , 2007. Malaria control needs mass distribution of insecticidal bednets. Lancet 369: 21432146.[Crossref]
  5. Barlow SM, Sullivan FM, Lines J, , 2001. Risk assessment of the use of deltamethrin on bednets for the prevention of malaria. Food Chem Toxicol 39: 407422.[Crossref]
  6. Macedo PA, Peterson RKD, Davis RS, , 2007. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management. J Toxicol Environ Health A 70: 17581771.[Crossref]
  7. Bomann W, , 1995. How Safe Are Pyrethroids-Treated Mosquito Nets? An Evaluation Based on the Example of Solfac EW 050. Leverkusen, Germany: Bayer AG Animal Health Division.
  8. World Health Organization, 2004. A Generic Risk Assessment Model for Insecticide Treatment and Subsequent Use of Mosquito Nets. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  9. World Health Organization, 2007. Insecticide Treated Mosquito Nets: A Position Statement on ITNs. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Global Malaria Programme.
  10. World Health Organization, 2009. Report of the Thirteenth WHOPES Working Group Meeting: Review of Olyset LN, DawaPlus 2.0 LN, and Tianjin Yorkool LN. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  11. World Health Organization, 2009. Report of the Twelfth WHOPES Working Group Meeting: Review of Bioflash GR, PermaNet 2.0, PermaNet 3.0, PermaNet 2.5, and Lambda-Cyhalothrin LN. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  12. World Health Organization, 2007. Report of the Tenth WHOPES Working Group Meeting: Review of Spinosad 0.5% GR & 12%SC, Lambda-Cyhalothrin 10%CS, K-O Tab 1-2-3, and Interceptor. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  13. World Health Organization, 2004. WHO Specifications and Evaluations for Public Health Pesticides: Long-Lasting (Incorporated into Filaments) Insecticidal Net. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  14. World Health Organization, 2001. Report of the Fifth WHOPES Working Group Meeting: Review of Olyset Net and Bifenthrin 10% WP. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  15. World Health Organization, 2008. Report of the Eleventh WHOPES Working Group Meeting: Review of Spinosad 7.48% DT, Netprotect, DuraNet, Dawaplus, and Icon Maxx. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  16. World Health Organization, 2004. Report of the Seventh WHOPES Working Group Meeting: Review of Vectobac WG, PermaNet, and Gokilaht-S 5EC. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  17. Najera JA, Zaim M, , 2002. Malaria Vector Control. Decision Making Criteria and Procedures for Judicious Use of Insecticides. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  18. Zaim M, Aitio A, Nakashima N, , 2000. Safety of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets. Med Vet Entomol 14: 15.[Crossref]
  19. Monyeki KD, Cameron N, Getz B, , 2000. Growth and nutritional status of rural South African children 3–10 years old: The Ellisras Growth Study. Am J Hum Biol 12: 4249.[Crossref]
  20. Steyn K, Bourne L, Jooste P, Fourie JM, Rossouw K, Lombard C, , 1998. Anthropometric profile of a black population of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa. East Afr Med J 75: 3540.
  21. Portier K, Tolson JK, Roberts SM, , 2007. Body weight distributions for risk assessment. Risk Anal 27: 1126.[Crossref]
  22. United States Environmental Protection Agency, , 1997. Exposure Factors Handbook. Vol I. General Factors. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.
  23. United States Environmental Protection Agency, , 2008. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.
  24. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2002. Office of Research and Development NCfEA, ed. Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook (Interim Report). Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency.
  25. Snodgrass HL, , 1992. Permethrin transfer from treated cloth to the skin surface: potential for exposure in humans. J Toxicol Environ Health 35: 91105.[Crossref]
  26. Camann DE, Majumdar TK, Geno PW, , 1995. Determination of Pesticide Removal Efficiencies from Human Hand Wiped with Gause Moistened with Three Salivary Fluids (Experiment I.3). San Antonio, TX: ManTech.
  27. World Health Organization, 2010. WHO Specifications and Evaluations for Public Health Pesticides: Permethrin. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  28. World Health Organization, 2008. WHO Specifications and Evaluations for Public Health Pesticides: Deltamethrin. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  29. World Health Organization, 2009. WHO Specifications and Evaluations for Public Health Pesticides: Alpha-Cypermethrin. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  30. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency, 195.
  31. Schleier JJ III, Sing SE, Peterson RKD, , 2008. Regional ecological risk assessment for the introduction of Gambusia affinis (western mosquitofish) into Montana watersheds. Biol Invasions 10: 12771287.[Crossref]
  32. Antwi F, Shama LM, Peterson RKD, , 2008. Risk assessments for the insect repellents DEET and picaridin. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 51: 3136.[Crossref]
  33. Peterson RKD, Macedo PA, Davis RS, , 2006. A human-health risk assessment for West Nile virus and insecticides used in mosquito management. Environ Health Perspect 114: 366372.[Crossref]
  34. Macedo PA, Schleier JJ III, Reed M, Kelley K, Goodman GW, Brown DA, Peterson RKD, , 2010. Evaluation of efficacy and human health risk of aerial ultra-low volume applications of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide for adult mosquito management in response to West Nile virus activity in Sacramento County, California. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26: 5766.[Crossref]
  35. Schleier JJ III, Peterson RKD, , 2010. Toxicity and risk of permethrin and naled to non-target insects after adult mosquito management. Ecotoxicology 16: 11401146.[Crossref]
  36. Peterson RKD, , 2010. Mosquito management and risk. Wing Beats 21: 2831.
  37. Schleier JJ III, Macedo PA, Davis RS, Shama LM, Peterson RKD, , 2009. A two-dimensional probabilistic acute human-health risk assessment of insecticide exposure after adult mosquito management. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess 23: 555563.[Crossref]
  38. Schleier JJ III, Peterson RKD, Macedo PA, Brown DA, , 2008. Environmental concentrations, fate, and risk assessment of pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide after aerial ultralow-volume applications for adult mosquito management. Environ Toxicol Chem 27: 10631068.[Crossref]
  39. Davis RS, Peterson RKD, Macedo PA, , 2007. An ecological risk assessment for insecticides used in adult mosquito management. Integr Environ Assess Manag 3: 373382.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0016
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0016
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Jan 2011
  • Accepted : 09 Mar 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error