1921
Volume 84, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Onchocerciasis remains an important debilitating disease in many areas of Africa, including Sudan. The status of infection transmission in 2007 was assessed in the vectors of two disease foci in Sudan: Abu Hamed in northern Sudan, which has received at least 10 years of annual treatment and Galabat focus in eastern Sudan, where only minor, largely undocumented treatment activity has occurred. Assessment of more than 30,000 black flies for infectious stage L3 larvae by using an O-150 polymerase chain reaction protocol showed that black fly infectivity rates were 0.84 (95% confidence interval = 0.0497–1.88) per 10,000 flies for Abu Hamed and 6.9 (95% confidence interval = 1.1–16.4) infective flies per 10,000 for Galabat. These results provide entomologic evidence for suppressed transmission in the Abu Hamed focus and a moderate transmission rate of the parasite in the Galabat focus.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0009
2011-05-05
2019-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/84/5/753.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0009&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 1997. Drancunculiasis and onchocerciasis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 72: 297301. [Google Scholar]
  2. Ensor H, , 1908. The advent of craw-craw in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. J R Soc Trop Med Corp 10: 140143. [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization, 1995. Onchocerciasis and its control. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser 852: 1104. [Google Scholar]
  4. Mackenzie CD, Williams JF, O'Day J, Ghalal I, Flockhart HA, Sisley BM, , 1987. Onchocerciasis in southwestern Sudan: parasitological and clinical characteristics. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 371382. [Google Scholar]
  5. Mukhtar M, Khier M, Baraka O, Homeida M, , 1998. The burden of Onchocerca volvulus in Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 (Suppl 1): S129S131.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Morgan H, , 1958. Onchocerciasis in northern Sudan. J Trop Med Hyg 61: 145147. [Google Scholar]
  7. Abdalla R, Baker EA, , 1975. A new focus of onchoceriasis in the Sudan. Trop Geogr Med 27: 365370. [Google Scholar]
  8. Williams JF, Abu Yousif AH, Ballard M, Awad R, el Tayeb M, Rasheed M, , 1985. Onchocerciasis in Sudan: the Abu Hamed focus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 79: 464468.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Ghalib H, Mackenzie C, Williams J, Elsheikh H, Kron M, , 1987. Severe onchocercal dermatitis in Ethiopian border region of Sudan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 81: 405419.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Baker RH, Abdelnur OM, , 1986. Onchocerciasis in Sudan: the distribution of the disease and its vectors. Trop Med Parasitol 37: 341355. [Google Scholar]
  11. Higazi TB, Boakye DA, Wilson MD, Mahmoud BM, Baraka OZ, Mukhtar MM, Unnasch TR, , 2000. Cytotaxonomic and molecular analysis of Simulium (Edwardsellum) damnosum sensu lato (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Abu Hamed, Sudan. J Med Entomol 37: 547553.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Zimmerman PA, Dadzie KY, DeSole G, Remme J, Alley ES, Unnasch TR, , 1992. Onchocerca volvulus: DNA probe classification correlates with epidemiological patterns of blindness. J Infect Dis 165: 964968.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Higazi TB, Katholi CR, Mahmoud BM, Baraka OZ, Mukhtar MM, Qubati YA, Unnasch TR, , 2001. Onchocerca volvulus: genetic diversity of parasite isolates from Sudan. Exp Parasitol 97: 2434.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Walsh J, Service AY, , 1983. Sampling Simuliid black flies. , ed. Pest and Vector Management in the Tropics. Longman. London, 9399. [Google Scholar]
  15. Rodríguez-Pérez MA, Lilley BG, Domínguez-Vázquez A, Segura-Arenas R, Lizarazo-Ortega C, Mendoza-Herrera A, Reyes-Villanueva F, Unnasch TR, , 2004. Polymerase chain reaction monitoring of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in two endemic states in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 3845. [Google Scholar]
  16. Rodríguez-Pérez MA, Katholi CR, Hassan HK, Unnasch TR, , 2006. Large-scale entomologic assessment of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by poolscreen PCR in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 10261033. [Google Scholar]
  17. Rodríguez-Pérez MA, Unnasch TR, Domínguez-Vázquez A, Morales-Castro AL, Richards F, Jr Peña-Flores GP, Orozco-Algarra ME, Prado-Velasco G, , 2010. Lack of active Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the northern Chiapas focus of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 1520.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Katholi CR, Toé L, Merriweather A, Unnasch TR, , 1995. Determining the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in vector populations by polymerase chain reaction screening of pools of black flies. J Infect Dis 172: 14141417.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Renz A, , 1987. Studies on the dynamics of transmission of onchocerciasis in a Sudan-savanna area of North Cameroon II. Seasonal and diurnal changes in the biting densities and in the age-composition of the vector population. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 81: 229237.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Lindblade KA, Arana B, Zea-Flores G, Rizzo N, Porter CH, Dominguez A, Cruz-Ortiz N, Unnasch TR, Punkosdy GA, Richards J, Sauerbrey M, Castro J, Catú E, Oliva O, Richards FO, Jr, 2007. Elimination of Onchocercia volvulus transmission in the Santa Rosa focus of Guatemala. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 334341. [Google Scholar]
  21. Gonzalez RJ, Cruz-Ortiz N, Rizzo N, Richards J, Zea-Flores G, Domínguez A, Sauerbrey M, Catú E, Oliva O, Richards FO, Lindblade KA, , 2009. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e404.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Basanez MG, Rodriguez-Perez MA, Reyes-Villanueva F, Collins RC, Rodriguez MH, , 1998. Determination of sample sizes for the estimation of Onchocerca volvulus (filarioidea: Onchocercidae) infection rates in biting populations of Simulium ochraceum s.l. (diptera: Simuliidae) and its application to ivermectin control programs. J Med Entomol 35: 745757.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. World Health Organization, 2001. Certification of Elimination of Human Onchocerciariasis: Criteria and Procedures. Geneva: World Health Organization, 136. [Google Scholar]
  24. Plaisier AP, van Oortmarssen GJ, Remme J, Alley ES, Habbema JD, , 1991. The risk and dynamics of onchocerciasis recrudescence after cessation of vector control. Bull World Health Organ 69: 169178. [Google Scholar]
  25. Remme JH, , 2004. Research for control: the onchocerciasis experience. Trop Med Int Health 9: 243254.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Katholi CR, Unnasch TR, , 2006. Important experimental parameters for determining infection rates in arthropod vectors using pool screening approaches. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 779785. [Google Scholar]
  27. Borsboom GJJM, Boatin BA, Nagelkerke NJ, Agoua H, Akpoboua KL, Alley AW, Yeriba Bissan Y, Renz A, Yameogo L, Remme JH, Habbema JD, , 2003. Impact of vermectin on onchocerciasis transmission: assessing the empirical evidence that repeated ivermectin mass treatments may lead to elimination/eradication in West Africa. Filaria J 2: 8.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Diawara L, Traoré MO, Badji A, Bissan Y, Doumbia K, Goita SF, Konaté L, Mounkoro K, Sarr MD, Seck AF, Toé L, Tourée S, Remme JH, , 2009. Feasibility of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: first evidence from studies in Mali and Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e497.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Cupp EW, Sauerbrey M, Richards F, , 2010. Elimination of human onchocerciasis: history of progress and current feasibility using ivermectin (Mectizan®) monotherapy. Acta Trop Aug 27: [Epub ahead of print]. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0009
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0009
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Erratum

  • Received : 04 Jan 2011
  • Accepted : 11 Feb 2011
  • Published online : 05 May 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error