Volume 85, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Worldwide, the male to female ratio of new smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases is approximately two to one. However, in Pakistan, this is not the case. Rates of notified TB cases are 20–30% higher in young females compared with males, and female rates remain high regardless of increasing age. This is in stark contrast to neighboring India, which is characterized by an excess of male TB cases. It is currently unknown why rates of notified TB are so high in females in Pakistan, but it is clear that this epidemiology is a public health issue of importance that impacts transmission dynamics and disease control initiatives.


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  • Received : 09 Dec 2010
  • Accepted : 25 Apr 2011
  • Published online : 01 Sep 2011

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