Volume 85, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Virulence of strains from 20 humans in Brazil was investigated by using a polymerase chain reaction to characterize isolates as virulent (VapA), intermediately virulent (VapB), and avirulent. Nine isolates were obtained from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients, six from HIV-negative patients, and five from patients of unknown status. Five isolates were VapB positive, four were VapA positive, and eleven were avirulent. Among the nine isolates from HIV-positive patients, five contained VapB plasmids and two contained VapA plasmids. Five VapB-positive isolates had the type 8 virulence plasmid. Eleven of the patients had a history of contact with livestock and/or a farm environment, and none had contact with pigs.


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  • Received : 07 Dec 2010
  • Accepted : 27 Mar 2011
  • Published online : 01 Sep 2011

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