1921
Volume 85, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is an important health problem that may cause serious morbidity and diagnostic challenges. We conducted a case–control study involving 5,684, approximately 99% of bacteriologically confirmed TB patients (including 1,925 EPTB cases) diagnosed in Denmark and Greenland during 1992–2007 to gain insight to the role of host factors in EPTB pathogenesis. Among patients from Somalia and Asia, persons 25–44 and 45–64 years of age were more likely to have EPTB than persons 15–24 years of age. In contrast, among persons from Greenland, the two oldest age groups were significantly less likely to have EPTB than the youngest age group. For all the age groups, the odds for having EPTB was significantly higher among patients from Somalia and Asia and significantly lower among the patients from Greenland than among patients from Denmark. Furthermore, the occurrence of specific types of EPTB significantly varied among different age groups or origins.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0630
2011-08-01
2019-07-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/2/285.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0630&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2010. Tuberculosis. Fact Sheet No. 104: Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization, 2009. Global Tuberculosis Control: A Short Update to the 2009 Report. Genva: World Health Organization [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organizatin, 2009. Global Tuberculosis Control: Epidemiology, Strategy, Financing. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  4. World Health Organization, 2005. Increasing/Decreasing Over/Under/Diagnosis of Extrapulmonary TB. TB Epidemiology and Surveillance Workshop. [Google Scholar]
  5. Kruijshaar ME, Abubakar I, , 2009. Increase in extrapulmonary tuberculosis in England and Wales 1999–2006. Thorax 64: 10901095.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Peto HM, Pratt RH, Harrington TA, LoBue PA, Armstrong LR, , 2009. Epidemiology of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the United States, 1993–2006. Clin Infect Dis 49: 13501357.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. te Beek LA, van der Werf MJ, Richter C, Borgdorff MW, , 2006. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis by nationality, The Netherlands, 1993–2001. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 13751382.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Rieder HL, Sinder DE, Jr Cauthen GM, , 1990. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the United States. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 347351.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Jones BE, Young SM, Antoniskis D, Davidson PT, Kramer F, Barnes PF, , 1993. Relationship of the manifestations of tuberculosis to CD4 cell counts in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 12921297.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Manabe YC, Dannenberg AM, Jr Tyagi SK, Hatem CL, Yoder M, Woolwine SC, Zook BC, Pitt ML, Bishai WR, , 2003. Different strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cause various spectrums of disease in the rabbit model of tuberculosis. Infect Immun 71: 60046011.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Diagnostic Standards and Classification of Tuberculosis in Adults and Children, 2000. This official statement of the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was adopted by the ATS Board of Directors, July 1999. This statement was endorsed by the Council of the Infectious Disease Society of America, September 1999. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161: 13761395.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Golden MP, Vikram HR, , 2005. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: an overview. Am Fam Physician 72: 17611768. [Google Scholar]
  13. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Leron E, Yanai-Inbar I, Mazor M, , 2002. Peritoneal tuberculosis mimicking ovarian carcinoma with ascites and elevated serum CA-125: case report and review of literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 23: 120122. [Google Scholar]
  14. Rock RB, Sutherland WM, Baker C, Williams DN, , 2006. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis among Somalis in Minnesota. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 14341436.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Sreeramareddy CT, Panduru KV, Verma SC, Joshi HS, Bates MN, , 2008. Comparison of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Nepal: a hospital-based retrospective study. BMC Infect Dis 8: 8.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Yang Z, Kong Y, Wilson F, Foxman B, Fowler AH, Marrs CF, Cave MD, Bates JH, , 2004. Identification of risk factors for extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 38: 199205.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Ferrer J, , 1997. Pleural tuberculosis. Eur Respir J 10: 942947. [Google Scholar]
  18. Simon HB, Weinstein AJ, Pasternak MS, Swartz MN, Kunz LJ, , 1977. Genitourinary tuberculosis. Clinical features in a general hospital population. Am J Med 63: 410420.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Valdes L, Alvarez D, San Jose E, Penela P, Valle JM, Garcia-Pazos JM, Suarez J, Pose A, , 1998. Tuberculous pleurisy: a study of 254 patients. Arch Intern Med 158: 20172021.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Lillebaek T, Andersen AB, Bauer J, Dirksen A, Gilsmann S, de Haas P, Kok-Jensen A, , 2001. Risk of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in a low-incidence country due to immigration from high-incidence areas. J Clin Microbiol 39: 855861.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. World Health Organization, 2009. TB Country Profile, Denmark Surveillance and Epiodemiology. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  22. Ebdrup L, Storgaard M, Jensen-Fangel S, Obel N, , 2003. Ten years of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a Danish university clinic. Scand J Infect Dis 35: 244246.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Soborg C, Soborg B, Pouelsen S, Pallisgaard G, Thybo S, Bauer J, , 2001. Doubling of the tuberculosis incidence in Greenland over an 8-year period (1990–1997). Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 5: 257265. [Google Scholar]
  24. Harries A, Maher D, Graham S, , 2004. TB/HIV: A Clinical Manual. Second edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, Volume 329. [Google Scholar]
  25. Varaine FH, Grouzard V, , 2010. Tuberculosis. Practical Guide for Clinicians, Nurses, Laboratory Technicians and Medical Auxiliaries. Fifth Edition. Geneva: Médecins Sans Frontières. [Google Scholar]
  26. Forssbohm M, Zwahlen M, Loddenkemper R, Rieder HL, , 2008. Demographic characteristics of patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis in Germany. Eur Respir J 31: 99105.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Cailhol J, Decludt B, Che D, , 2005. Sociodemographic factors that contribute to the development of extrapulmonary tuberculosis were identified. J Clin Epidemiol 58: 10661071.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Wilberschied LA, Kaye K, Fujiwara PI, Frieden TR, , 1999. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis among foreign-born patients, New York City, 1995 to 1996. J Immigr Health 1: 6575.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. World Health Organization, 2007. Profiles of High-Burden Countries, WHO Report 2007, Global Tuberculosis Control. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  30. Asghar RJ, Pratt RH, Kammerer JS, Navin TR, , 2008. Tuberculosis in south Asians living in the United States, 1993–2004. Arch Intern Med 168: 936942.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Noertjojo K, Tam CM, Chan SL, Chan-Yeung MM, , 2002. Extra-pulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis in Hong Kong. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 6: 879886. [Google Scholar]
  32. Farah MG, Meyer HE, Selmer R, Heldal E, Bjune G, , 2005. Long-term risk of tuberculosis among immigrants in Norway. Int J Epidemiol 34: 10051011.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Poulsen S, Ronne T, Kok-Jensen A, Bauer JO, Miorner H, , 1999. Tuberculosis in Denmark, 1972–1996. Ugeskr Laeger 161: 34523457. [Google Scholar]
  34. Raviglione MC, Sudre P, Rieder HL, Spinaci S, Kochi A, , 1993. Secular trends of tuberculosis in western Europe. Bull World Health Organ 71: 297306. [Google Scholar]
  35. Kipp AM, Stout JE, Hamilton CD, Van Rie A, , 2008. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus, and foreign birth in North Carolina, 1993–2006. BMC Public Health 8: 107.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Yang ZH, de Haas PE, van Soolingen D, van Embden JD, Andersen AB, , 1994. Restriction fragment length polymorphism Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from Greenland during 1992: evidence of tuberculosis transmission between Greenland and Denmark. J Clin Microbiol 32: 30183025. [Google Scholar]
  37. Yang ZH, Yang D, Kong Y, Zhang LX, Marrs CF, Foxman B, Bates JH, , 2005. Clinical relevance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis plcD gene mutations. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 171: 14361442.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  38. Andersen PH, , 2008. Tuberculosis 2007, Part I. Epi-News, National Surveillance of Communicable Diseases. No. 50, 2008. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0630
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0630
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 05 Nov 2010
  • Accepted : 27 Apr 2011
  • Published online : 01 Aug 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error