Volume 84, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



One goal of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GAELF) is interruption of disease transmission through annual mass drug administration (MDA) in areas where LF prevalence is greater than 1%. After MDAs are completed, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a period of passive surveillance before final certification of LF elimination is achieved. Guidelines for such a surveillance system have yet to be developed. This paper describes a surveillance system launched in Togo in 2006. The system uses existing laboratories with technicians on call at night who, among other activities, prepare nocturnal thick blood smears for malaria diagnosis that can also be used for LF diagnosis. During its first 2 years (2006–2007), the system provided geographically disperse sampling nationwide, and 1 of 750 people residing in Togo was tested. Over the same period, the system detected two cases of LF, both from areas previously considered non-endemic. This system could be a cost-effective, sustainable model for WHO-mandated passive surveillance after cessation of MDA.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Ottesen EA, , 2000. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Trop Med Int Health 5: 591594.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Gyapong JO, Kyelem D, Kleinschmidt I, Agbo K, Ahouandogbo F, Gaba J, Owusu-Banahene G, Sanou S, Sodahlon YK, Biswas G, Kale OO, Molyneux DH, Roungou JB, Thomson MC, Remme J, , 2002. The use of spatial analysis in mapping the distribution of bancroftian filariasis in four West African countries. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 96: 695705.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Weil GJ, Lammie PJ, Weiss N, , 1997. The ICT Filariasis Test: a rapid-format antigen test for diagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol Today 13: 401404.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. World Health Organization, 2005. Monitoring and Epidemiological Assessment of the Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis at Implementation Unit Level. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ottesen EA, Duke BO, Karam M, Behbehani K, , 1997. Strategies and tools for the control/elimination of lymphatic filariasis. Bull World Health Organ 75: 491503. [Google Scholar]
  6. World Health Organ, 2007. Global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 82: 361380. [Google Scholar]
  7. Brinkmann UK, , 1976. Circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti in Liberia and its effect on the results of a prevalence study. Tropenmed Parasitol 27: 5056. [Google Scholar]
  8. Edeson JF, Hawking F, Symes CB, , 1957. The periodicity of microfilariae. VI. The response of microfilariae of Wuchereria malayi and W. bancrofti, Pacific type, to various stimuli. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 51: 359365.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. World Health Organization, 2009. Malaria Light Microscopy: Creating a Culture of Quality. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  10. Simonsen PE, Onapa AW, Asio SM, , 2010. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Africa. Acta Trop. [Google Scholar]
  11. Addiss D, , Eliminate lymphatic filariasis GA. The 6th Meeting of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis: a half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases. Parasit Vectors 20: 100. [Google Scholar]
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010. Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/idsr/index.htm. Accessed February 19, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  13. World Health Organization, 2010. Global Polio Eradication Initiative Strategic Plan 2010–2012. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  14. Harris BN, Durrheim DN, Ogunbanjo GA, , 2003. Polio eradication—the validity of surveillance indicators. Trop Med Int Health 8: 386391.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Hopkins DR, Ruiz-Tiben E, , 1992. Surveillance for dracunculiasis, 1981–1991. MMWR CDC Surveill Summ 41: 113. [Google Scholar]
  16. World Health Organization, 2007. Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  17. Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, 2009. Progress towards eradicating poliomyelitis in Nigeria. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 85: 273280. [Google Scholar]
  18. Nutman TB, Pasvol G, , 2000. , ed. Lymphatic Filariasis. London, United Kingdom: Imperial College Press.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Recommendations of the International Task Force for Disease Eradication. MMWR Recomm Rep 42: 138. [Google Scholar]
  20. German RR, Lee LM, Horan JM, Milstein RL, Pertowski CA, Waller MN, , 2001. Updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems: recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group. MMWR Recomm Rep 50: 135. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 26 Oct 2010
  • Accepted : 21 Feb 2011
  • Published online : 01 Jun 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error