Volume 85, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Rabies and associated risk factors in dogs, cats and cattle (n = 3,454) in southern Thailand during 1994–2008 were evaluated by using a mixed-effect logistic regression model. Overall prevalence was 48%. In dogs, odds of being rabid were 1.7 times higher in unvaccinated dogs than in vaccinated dogs and two times higher in dogs with bite history than in dogs with no known bite history. Similarly, aggressive dogs were more likely to be rabid than non-aggressive dogs. In cattle, aggression, pharyngeal paralysis, hyperactivity, and depression were clinical signs associated with being rabid. Annual fluctuations of the species-specific prevalence of rabies is suggestive of a positive correlation between canine and either feline ( = 0.60, = 0.05) or bovine rabies ( = 0.78, = 0.004). Insufficient vaccination coverage led to maintenance of rabies, which could be easily controlled by increased vaccine coverage and public education.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. World Health Organization, 2009. Human and Animal Rabies. Available at: http://www.who.int/rabies/en. Accessed September 8, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  2. Knobel DL, Cleaveland S, Coleman PG, Fèvre EM, Meltzer MI, Miranda ME, , 2005. Re-evaluating the burden of rabies in Africa and Asia. Bull World Health Organ 83: 360368. [Google Scholar]
  3. Denduangboripant J, Wacharapluesadee S, Lumlertdacha B, Ruankaew N, Hoonsuwan W, Puanghat A, Hemachudha T, , 2005. Transmission dynamics of rabies virus in Thailand: implications for disease control. BMC Infect Dis 5: 52.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Division of Epidemiology, 2008. Summary of Notifiable Diseases. Annual Epidemiology Surveillance Report. Available at: Accessed September 8, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  5. Bowen-Davies J, Lowings P, , 2000. Current perspectives on rabies 2. Review of classical rabies and its control. In practice 22: 170175.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Ott RL, Pratt PW, , 1983. Systemic viral disease: neurologic virus infection, rabies. , ed. Feline Medicine. First edition. Santa Barbara, CA: American Veterinary Publication Inc, 101106. [Google Scholar]
  7. Hudson LC, Weinstock D, Jordan T, Bold-Fletcher NO, , 1996. Clinical features of experimentally induced rabies in cattle and sheep. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B 43: 8595. [Google Scholar]
  8. Ikede BO, Radostists OM, Gay CC, Blood DC, Hinchcliff KW, , 1999. Diseases caused by viruses and Chlamydia-II. , eds. Veterinary Medicine. Ninth edition. New York: W.B. Saunders, 12011208. [Google Scholar]
  9. Wilde H, , 2005. Fox rabies in India. Clin Infect Dis 40: 614615.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Kasempimolporn S, Sichanasai B, Saengseesom W, Puempumpanich S, Sitprija V, , 2008. Stray dogs in Bangkok, Thailand: rabies virus infection and rabies antibody prevalence. Dev Biol (Basel) 131: 137143. [Google Scholar]
  11. Wilde H, Chutivongse S, Tepsumethanon W, Choomkasien P, Polsuwan C, Lumbertdacha B, , 1991. Rabies in Thailand: 1990. Rev Infect Dis 13: 644652.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Bureau of Disease Control and Veterinary Services, 2009. Rabies Control and Prevention Plan. Available at: http://www.dld.go.th/dcontrol/02Planning/Planning52/Planning52.htm. Accessed September 15, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  13. Kasempimolporn S, Jitapunkul S, Sitprija V, , 2008. Moving towards the elimination of rabies in Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai 91: 433437. [Google Scholar]
  14. Kongkaew W, Coleman P, Pfeiffer DU, Antarasena C, Thiptara A, , 2004. Vaccination coverage and epidemiological parameters of the owned-dog population in Thungsong District, Thailand. Prev Vet Med 65: 105115.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Tepsumethanon V, Wilde H, Meslin FX, , 2005. Six criteria for rabies diagnosis in living dogs. J Med Assoc Thai 88: 419422. [Google Scholar]
  16. Thai Meteorological Department, 2009. Available at: http://www.tmd.go.th/info/info.php?FileID=23. Accessed August 13, 2009.
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2003. Protocol for Postmortem Diagnosis of Rabies in Animals by Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing: A Minimum Standard for Rabies Diagnosis in the United States. Available at: http:www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/rabies/Professional/publication/DFA_Diagnosis/DFA. Accessed August 13, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  18. Markson LM, Upcott DH, Hebert CN, , 1971. A biological test for rabies using suckling mice. Trop Anim Health Prod 3: 8992.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Hosmer DW, Lemes S, , 2000. Model-building strategies and methods for logistic regression. Applied Logistic Regression. Second edition. New York: John Wiley and Son Inc., 91143.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Department of Provincial Administration, 2009. Annual Report of Population Density. Available at: http://www.dopa.go.th/stat/y_stat.html. Accessed September 17, 2009. [Google Scholar]
  21. Mitmoonpitak C, Wilde H, Tepsumetanon V, , 1997. Current status of animal rabies in Thailand. J Vet Med Sci 59: 457460.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Chomel B, Chappuis G, Bullon F, Cardenas E, de Beublain TD, Lombard M, Giambruno E, , 1988. Mass vaccination campaign against rabies: are dogs correctly protected? The Peruvian experience. Rev Infect Dis 10: 697702.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Mitmoonpitak C, Tepsumethanon V, , 2002. Dog rabies in Bangkok. J Med Assoc Thai 85: 7176. [Google Scholar]
  24. Flores-Ibarra M, Estrella-Valenzuela G, , 2004. Canine ecology and socioeconomic factors associated with dogs unvaccinated against rabies in a Mexican city across the US-Mexico border. Prev Vet Med 62: 7987.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. da Silva LH, Bissoto CE, Delbem AC, Ferrari CI, Perri SH, Nunes CM, , 2004. Canine rabies epidemiology in Araçatuba and neighborhood, northwestern São Paulo State-Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 37: 139142.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Ratsitorahina M, Rasambainarivo JH, Raharimanana S, Rakotonandrasana H, Andriamiarisoa MP, Rakalomanana FA, Richard V, , 2007. Dog ecology and demography in Antananarivo. BMC Vet Res 5: 17. [Google Scholar]
  27. Eng TR, Fishbein DB, Talamante HE, Hall DB, Chavez GF, Dobbins JG, Muro FJ, Bustos JL, de los Angeles Ricardy M, Munguia A, , 1993. Urban epizootic of rabies in Mexico: epidemiology and impact of animal bite injuries. Bull World Health Organ 71: 615624. [Google Scholar]
  28. Blanton JD, Palmer D, Rupprecht CE, , 2010. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2009. J Am Vet Med Assoc 237: 646657.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Meesomboon V, Kuwert E, Merieux C, Koprowski H, Bogel K, , 1985. Epidemiology of rabies in Thailand. , eds. Rabies in the Tropics. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 721725.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Coleman PG, Dye C, , 1996. Immunization coverage required to prevent outbreaks of dog rabies. Vaccine 14: 185186.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Sep 2010
  • Accepted : 04 Apr 2011
  • Published online : 01 Jul 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error