Volume 85, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



A different clinical picture and therapeutic response were observed when data from -infected Dutch military personnel stationed in southern ( = 8) and northern ( = 169) Afghanistan were analyzed. Clinical presentation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in personnel in the south was milder and seemed to respond better to antileishmanial treatment; molecular analyses of parasite isolates seem to indicate that these differences may be genetic.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. van Thiel PPAM, Leenstra T, de Vries HJ, van der Sluis A, van Gool T, Krull AC, van Vugt M, de Vries PJ, Zeegelaar JE, Bart A, van der Meide WF, Schallig HDFH, Faber WR, Kager PA, , 2010. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania major Infection) in Dutch troops deployed in Nothern Afghanistan: epidemilogy, clinical aspects, and treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 12941300.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, Louzir H, Pirmez C, Alexander B, Brooker S, , 2007. Cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 581596.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Marfurt J, Nassereddin A, Niederweiser I, Jaffe CL, Beck HP, Felger I, , 2003. Identification and differentiation of Leishmania species in clinical samples by PCR amplification of the miniexon sequence and subsequent restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. J Clin Microbiol 41: 31473153.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Elfari M, Schnur LF, Strelkova MV, Eisenberger CL, Jacobson RL, Greenblatt CL, Presber W, Schönian G, , 2005. Genetic and biological diversity among populations of Leishmania major from Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Microbes Infect 7: 93103.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S, , 2007. MEGA4: molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24: 15961599.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Rioux JA, Lanotte G, Serres E, Pratlong F, Bastien P, Perieres J, , 1990. Taxonomy of Leishmania. Use of isoenzymes. Suggestions for a new classification. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 65: 111125.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. van Thiel PPAM, Leenstra T, Kager PA, de Vries HJ, van Vugt M, van der Meide WF, Bart A, Zeegelaar JE, van der Sluis AJ, Schallig HDFH, van Gool T, Faber WR, de Vries PJ, , 2010. Miltefosine treatment of Leishmania major infection: an observational study involving Dutch military personnel returning from northern Afghanistan. Clin Infect Dis 50: 8083.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Tashakori M, Kuhls K, Al-Jawabreh A, Mauricio IL, Schönian G, Farajnia S, Alimohammadian MH, , 2006. Leishmania major: genetic heterogeneity of Iranian isolates by single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer. Acta Trop 98: 5258.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Al-Jawabreh A, Diezmann S, Müller M, Wirth T, Schnur LF, Strelkova MV, Kovalenko DA, Razakov SA, Schwenkenbecher J, Kuhls K, Schönian G, , 2008. Identification of geographically distributed sub-populations of Leishmania (Leishmania) major by microsatellite analysis. BMC Evol Biol 8: 183.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Schönian G, Mauricio I, Gramiccia M, Cañavate C, Boelaert M, Dujardin JC, , 2008. Leishmanasis in the Mediterranean in the era of molecular epidemiology. Trends Parasitol 24: 135142.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Reithinger R, Dujardin JC, , 2007. Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: current status and future applications. J Clin Microbiol 45: 2125.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Lynn MA, McMaster WR, , 2008. Leishmania: conserved evolution-diverse disease. Trends Parasitol 24: 103105.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Pratlong F, Dereure J, Ravel C, Lami P, Balard Y, Serres G, Lanotte G, Rioux JA, Dedet JP, , 2009. Geographical distribution and epidemiological features of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis foci, based on the isoenzyme analysis of 1048 strains. Trop Med Int Health 14: 10711085.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Schönian G, Kuhls K, Mauricio IL, , 2010. Molecular approaches for a better understanding of the epidemiology and population genetics of Leishmania . Parasitology 16: 121. [Google Scholar]
  15. Kuhls K, Chicharro C, Cañavate C, Cortes S, Campino L, Haralambous C, Soteriadou K, Pratlong F, Dedet JP, Mauricio I, Miles M, Schaar M, Ochsenreither S, Radtke OA, Schönian G, , 2008. Differentiation and gene flow among European populations of Leishmania infantum MON-1. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e261.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Sep 2010
  • Accepted : 31 Mar 2011
  • Published online : 01 Jul 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error