Volume 84, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



To determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women in Rwanda and the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on anemia, we analyzed 200 HIV-positive women and 50 HIV-negative women in a cross-sectional study. Clinical examinations and iron and vitamin B assays were performed, and complete blood counts, serum folic acid levels, and CD4 cell count determined. The prevalence of anemia was significantly higher among HIV-positive women (29%) than among HIV-negative women (8%) ( < 0.001). Risk factors for anemia were lower body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4–4.1), zidovudine use (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.01–1.29), lack of HAART (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.21–1.67), oral candidiasis (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2–1.6), pulmonary tuberculosis (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.7–2.2), cryptococcal meningitis (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.21–1.8), pneumonia (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.20–1.65) and CD4 lymphocyte count < 200 cells/μL (OR = 2.41, 95% CI = 2.01–3.07). The mean ± SD hemoglobin level of 10.9 ± 1.6 g/dL at HAART initiation significantly increased to 12.3 ± 1.5 g/dL in 8 months ( < 0.001). Anemia increases with HIV stage, and HAART is associated with a significant improvement in hemoglobin levels.


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  • Received : 18 Sep 2010
  • Accepted : 18 Nov 2010
  • Published online : 04 Mar 2011

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