1921
Volume 85, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Measles has been a major killer among vaccine-preventable diseases in children < 5 years of age in developing countries. Despite progress in global efforts to reduce mortality, measles remains a public health problem. Hospital-based measles surveillance was conducted in Manhica, Mozambique (July 2001–September 2004). Suspected cases and community-based controls were enrolled, and blood was collected for immunoglobulin M (IgM) confirmation. Two hundred fifty-three suspected cases and 477 controls were enrolled, with 85% (216 of 253) cases reported during a measles outbreak. Measles-IgM confirmation was 30% among suspected cases and 5% in controls. Fifty-eight percent (14 of 24) of laboratory-confirmed cases had records indicating previous measles vaccination. Mortality was 3% (8 of 246) among cases and 1% among controls (6 of 426). Forty-five percent (33 of 74) of cases were < 24 months of age and 22% occurred in infants < 9 months of age and were associated with a high case-fatality rate (25%). Our data suggest that improved diagnostics, new tools to protect infants < 9 months of age, and a supplemental dose of measles vaccine could assist measles control.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0517
2011-07-01
2017-11-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/1/146.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0517&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Stein CE, Birmingham M, Kurian M, Duclos P, Strebel P, , 2003. The global burden of measles in the year 2000–a model that uses country-specific indicators. J Infect Dis 187 (Suppl 1): S8S14.[Crossref]
  2. Bryce J, Boschi-Pinto C, Shibuya K, Black RE, , 2005. WHO estimates of the causes of death in children. Lancet 365: 11471152.[Crossref]
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009. Progress toward measles control—African region 2001–2008. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58: 10361041. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5837a3.htm. Accessed April 6, 2010.
  4. WHO, UNICEF, The World Bank, 2009. State of the World's Vaccines and Immunization. Third edition. Geneva: WHO, 123126.
  5. Zarocostas J, , 2007. Mortality from measles fell by 91% in Africa from 2000 to 2006. BMJ 335: 1173.[Crossref]
  6. Kouadio IK, Koffi AK, Attoh-Toure H, Kamigaki T, Oshitani H, , 2009. Outbreak of measles and rubella in refugee transit camps. Epidemiol Infect 137: 15931601.[Crossref]
  7. McMorrow ML, Gebremedhin G, van den Heever J, Kezaala R, Harris BN, Nandy R, Strebel P, Jack A, Cairns KL, , 2009. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003–2005. S Afr Med J 99: 314319.
  8. Grais RF, Dubray C, Gerstl S, Guthmann JP, Djibo A, Nargaye KD, Coker J, Alberti KP, Cochet A, Ihekweazu C, Nathan N, Payne L, Porten K, Sauvageot D, Schimmer B, Fermon F, Burny ME, Hersh BS, Guerin PJ, , 2007. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad. PLoS Med 4: e16.[Crossref]
  9. Tapia MD, Sow SO, Medina-Moreno S, Lim Y, Pasetti MF, Kotloff K, Levine MM, , 2005. A serosurvey to identify the window of vulnerability to wild-type measles among infants in rural Mali. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 2631.
  10. Jani JV, Holm-Hansen C, Mussa T, Zango A, Manhica I, Bjune G, Jani IV, , 2008. Assessment of measles immunity among infants in Maputo City, Mozambique. BMC Public Health 8: 386.[Crossref]
  11. Moss WJ, Monze M, Ryon JJ, Quinn TC, Griffin DE, Cutts F, , 2002. Prospective study of measles in hospitalized, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Zambia. Clin Infect Dis 35: 189196.[Crossref]
  12. Moss WJ, Fisher C, Scott S, Monze M, Ryon JJ, Quinn TC, Griffin DE, Cutts FT, , 2008. HIV type 1 infection is a risk factor for mortality in hospitalized Zambian children with measles. Clin Infect Dis 46: 523527.[Crossref]
  13. Taha TE, Graham SM, Kumwenda NI, Broadhead RL, Hoover DR, Markakis D, van Der Hoeven L, Liomba GN, Chiphangwi JD, Miotti PG, , 2000. Morbidity among human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected and -uninfected African children. Pediatrics 106: E77.[Crossref]
  14. Cliff J, Simango A, Augusto O, Van Der Paal L, Biellik R, , 2003. Failure of targeted urban supplemental measles vaccination campaigns (1997–1999) to prevent measles epidemics in Mozambique (1998–2001). J Infect Dis 187 (Suppl 1): S51S57.[Crossref]
  15. Ministério da Saúde, Mozambique. Governo e parceiros satisfeitos com a campanha nacional de vacinação. Available at: http://www.misau.gov.mz/pt/programas/pav_programa_alargado_de_vacinacao/governo_e_parceiros_satisfeitos_com_os_resultados_da_campanha_nacional_de_vacinacao. Accessed February 15, 2010.
  16. Ministério de Saúde, Mozambique, Campanha contra Sarampo, 2005. Available at: http://www.misau.gov.mz/pt/programas/pav_programa_alargado_de_vacinacao. Accessed February 15, 2010.
  17. Mandomando IM, Naniche D, Pasetti MF, Valles X, Cuberos L, Nhacolo A, Kotloff KL, Martins H, Levine MM, Alonso P, , 2008. Measles-specific neutralizing antibodies in rural Mozambique: seroprevalence and presence in breast milk. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 787792.
  18. Jani JV, Jani IV, Araujo C, Sahay S, Barreto J, Bjune G, , 2006. Assessment of routine surveillance data as a tool to investigate measles outbreaks in Mozambique. BMC Infect Dis 6: 29.[Crossref]
  19. Estimaciones y datos sobre VIH y SIDA, 2007 y, 2001. Available at: http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/restore/jc1510_2008_global_report_pp211_234_es.pdf. Accessed March 2, 2010.
  20. Scott S, Cumberland P, Shulman CE, Cousens S, Cohen BJ, Brown DW, Bulmer JN, Dorman EK, Kawuondo K, Marsh K, Cutts F, , 2005. Neonatal measles immunity in rural Kenya: the influence of HIV and placental malaria infections on placental transfer of antibodies and levels of antibody in maternal and cord serum samples. J Infect Dis 191: 18541860.[Crossref]
  21. Farquhar C, Nduati R, Haigwood N, Sutton W, Mbori-Ngacha D, Richardson B, John-Stewart G, , 2005. High maternal HIV-1 viral load during pregnancy is associated with reduced placental transfer of measles IgG antibody. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 40: 494497.[Crossref]
  22. Tejiokem MC, Gouandjika I, Beniguel L, Zanga MC, Tene G, Gody JC, Njamkepo E, Kfutwah A, Penda I, Bilong C, Rousset D, Pouillot R, Tangy F, Baril L, , 2007. HIV-infected children living in Central Africa have low persistence of antibodies to vaccines used in the Expanded Program on Immunization. PLoS ONE 2: e1260.[Crossref]
  23. Helfand RF, Witte D, Fowlkes A, Garcia P, Yang C, Fudzulani R, Walls L, Bae S, Strebel P, Broadhead R, Bellini WJ, Cutts F, , 2008. Evaluation of the immune response to a 2-dose measles vaccination schedule administered at 6 and 9 months of age to HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in Malawi. J Infect Dis 198: 14571465.[Crossref]
  24. Instituto Nacional de Estatistica de Moçambique Censo, 2007. Available at: http://www.ine.gov.mz/censo2007/rdcenso09/mp10/mcpop/q4. Accessed February 15, 2010.
  25. Alonso PL, Saute F, Aponte JJ, Gómez-Olivé FX, Nhacolo A, Thompson R, Macete E, Abacassamo F, Ventura PJ, Bosch X, Menédez C, Dgedge M, , 2002. Manhiça Demographic Surveillance System (DSS), Mozambique. Population and Health in Developing Countries, INDEPTH Volume 1. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre (IDRC), 189195.
  26. Nhacolo AQ, Nhalungo DA, Sacoor CN, Aponte JJ, Thompson R, Alonso P, , 2006. Levels and trends of demographic indices in southern rural Mozambique: evidence from demographic surveillance in Manhica district. BMC Public Health 6: 291.[Crossref]
  27. Programa Alargado de vacinação. Maputo, Mozambique: Ministério da Saúde. 2005.
  28. Zhao H, Lu PS, Hu Y, Wu Q, Yao W, Zhou YH, , 2010. Low titers of measles antibody in mothers whose infants suffered from measles before eligible age for measles vaccination. Virol J 7: 87.[Crossref]
  29. TOPNEWS, 2011. Available at: http://topnews.us/content/224524-worst-measles-outbreak-malawi-death-toll-197. Accessed August 25, 2010.
  30. Mossong J, O'Callaghan CJ, Ratnam S, , 2000. Modeling antibody response to measles vaccine and subsequent waning of immunity in a low exposure population. Vaccine 19: 523529.[Crossref]
  31. Lee MS, Chien LJ, Yueh YY, Lu CF, , 2001. Measles seroepidemiology and decay rate of vaccine-induced measles IgG titers in Taiwan, 1995–1997. Vaccine 19: 46444651.[Crossref]
  32. Cutts FT, Monteiro O, Tabard P, Cliff J, , 1994. Measles control in Maputo, Mozambique, using a single dose of Schwarz vaccine at age 9 months. Bull World Health Organ 72: 227231.
  33. de Francisco A, Hall AJ, Unicomb L, Chakraborty J, Yunus M, Sack RB, , 1998. Maternal measles antibody decay in rural Bangladeshi infants–implications for vaccination schedules. Vaccine 16: 564568.[Crossref]
  34. Oyedele OO, Odemuyiwa SO, Ammerlaan W, Muller CP, Adu FD, , 2005. Passive immunity to measles in the breastmilk and cord blood of some nigerian subjects. J Trop Pediatr 51: 4548.[Crossref]
  35. Scott S, Moss WJ, Cousens S, Beeler JA, Audet SA, Mugala N, Quinn TC, Griffin DE, Cutts FT, , 2007. The influence of HIV-1 exposure and infection on levels of passively acquired antibodies to measles virus in Zambian infants. Clin Infect Dis 45: 14171424.[Crossref]
  36. Menendez C, Bardaji A, Sigauque B, Romagosa C, Sanz S, Serra-Casas E, Macete E, Berenguera A, David C, Dobano C, Naniche D, Mayor A, Ordi J, Mandomando I, Aponte JJ, Mabunda S, Alonso PL, , 2008. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women in the context of insecticide treated nets delivered through the antenatal clinic. PLoS One 3: e1934.[Crossref]
  37. Naniche D, Bardaji A, Lahuerta M, Berenguera A, Mandomando I, Sanz S, Aponte JJ, Sigauque B, Alonso PL, Menendez C, , 2009. Impact of maternal human immunodeficiency virus infection on birth outcomes and infant survival in rural Mozambique. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 870876.
  38. Helfand RF, Kebede S, Gary HE, Jr Beyene H, Bellini WJ, , 1999. Timing of development of measles-specific immunoglobulin M and G after primary measles vaccination. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 6: 178180.
  39. Coetzee N, Berry DJ, Jacobs ME, , 1991. Measles control in the urbanising environment. S Afr Med J 79: 440444.
  40. Ministério da Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique. Available at: http://www.misau.gov.mz/pt/epidemias_endemias/vigilancia_epidemiologic. Accessed May 2, 2010.
  41. Davidkin I, Valle M, , 1998. Vaccine-induced measles virus antibodies after two doses of combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: a 12-year follow-up in two cohorts. Vaccine 16: 20522057.[Crossref]
  42. Pasetti MF, Resendiz-Albor A, Ramirez K, Stout R, Papania M, Adams RJ, Polack FP, Ward BJ, Burt D, Chabot S, Ulmer J, Barry EM, Levine MM, , 2007. Heterologous prime-boost strategy to immunize very young infants against measles: pre-clinical studies in rhesus macaques. Clin Pharmacol Ther 82: 672685.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0517
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0517
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 13 Sep 2010
  • Accepted : 18 Apr 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error