Volume 85, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Mosquitoes were collected in Colorado during 2006 and 2007 to examine spatial and seasonal patterns of risk for exposure to vectors and West Nile virus. We used universal flavivirus primers to test pools of mosquitoes for viral RNA. This led to the detection and subsequent isolation of two insect-specific flaviviruses: flavivirus (CxFV), which was first described from Japan, and a novel insect flavivirus, designated Calbertado virus (CLBOV), which has also been detected in California and Canada. We recorded both viruses in and from Colorado. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed the presence of CxFV RNA in eggs and larvae from a laboratory colony established in 2005 and naturally infected with CxFV, suggesting vertical transmission as a means of viral maintenance in natural populations. Finally, we present phylogenetic analyses of the relationships between insect-specific flaviviruses and other selected flaviviruses.


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  • Received : 24 Aug 2010
  • Accepted : 31 Mar 2011
  • Published online : 01 Jul 2011

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