1921
Volume 85, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

The protozoan parasite has emerged as one of the most important water contaminants, causing waterborne outbreaks of diarrheal diseases worldwide. The small size of oocysts under the microscope and the possibility of changes in characteristics of oocysts, mainly in environmental samples, make the taxonomy of the genus difficult if morphologic characteristics are considered. This limitation encouraged the application of molecular methods to identify this microorganism. The aim of this study was to detect and identify by nested-polymerase chain reaction oocysts of present in water samples in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Water samples were concentrated through a membrane filter, DNA was extracted by using a standard technique, and both amplification reactions used forward and reverse oligonucleotides that were complementary to 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Thirty water samples from different sites of collection in the state of São Paulo were evaluated. oocysts were detected in 30% of the samples. By genoptyping, and sp. were identified in recreational water and was identified in surface water samples. This is the first report of in environmental samples in Brazil. Although identification of is still a difficult task, molecular methods are essential for specific identification and are a helpful tool to aid to understand the epidemiology of this parasite in Brazil.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0449
2011-11-01
2017-09-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/5/834.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0449&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Karanis P, Kourenti C, Smith H, , 2007. Waterborne transmission of protozoan parasites: a worldwide review of outbreaks and lessons learnt. J Water Health 5: 138.[Crossref]
  2. Zhou L, Singh A, Jiang J, Xiao L, , 2003. Molecular surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp. in raw wastewater in Milwaukee: implications for understanding outbreak occurrence and transmission dynamics. J Clin Microbiol 41: 52545257.[Crossref]
  3. Fayer R, Morgan U, Upton SJ, , 2000. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium: transmission, detection and identification. Int J Parasitol 30: 13051322.[Crossref]
  4. Carey CM, Lee H, Trevors JT, , 2004. Biology, persistence and detection of Cryptosporidium hominis oocyst. Water Res 38: 285290.[Crossref]
  5. Fayer R, Dubey JP, Lindsay DS, , 2004. Zoonotic protozoa: from land to sea. Trends Parasitol 20: 531536.[Crossref]
  6. Franco RM, , 2007. Protozoários de veiculação hídrica: relevância em saúde pública. Rev Panam Infectol 9: 3643.
  7. Xiao L, Alderisio K, Limor J, Royer M, Lal AA, , 2000. Identification of species and sources of Cryptosporidium oocysts in storm waters with a small-subunit rRNA-based diagnostic and genotyping tool. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 54925498.[Crossref]
  8. Lee Y, Gomez LL, Mcauliffe IT, Tsang VC, , 2004. Evaluation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst recovery efficiencies from various filtration cartridges by eletrochemiluminescence assays. Lett Appl Microbiol 39: 156162.[Crossref]
  9. Farias EW, Gamba RC, Pellizari VH, , 2002. Detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in raw sewage and creek water in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Braz J Microbiol 33: 4143.[Crossref]
  10. Franco RM, Rocha ER, Cantusio NR, , 2001. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw water the Atibaia River, Campinas, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 43: 109111.[Crossref]
  11. Hachich EM, Sato MI, Galvani AT, Menegon JR, Mucci JL, , 2004. Giardia and Cryptosporidium in source waters of São Paulo State, Brazil. Water Sci Technol 50: 230245.
  12. Razzolini MT, Silva TF, Bastos VK, , 2010. Detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium cysts/oocysts in watersheds and drinking water sources in Brazil urban areas. J Water Health 8: 399404.[Crossref]
  13. Neto RC, Santos LU, Franco RM, , 2006. Evaluation of sludge treatment and the efficiency of the disinfection of Giardia species cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts by UV at a sludge treatment plant in Campinas, south-east Brazil. Water Sci Technol 54: 8994.[Crossref]
  14. Santos LU, Bonatti TR, Cantusio Neto R, Franco RM, , 2004. Occurrence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in activated sludge sample in Campinas, SP, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 46: 309313.[Crossref]
  15. Franco RM, Cantusio NR, , 2002. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in bottled mineral water commercialized in city of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 205207.[Crossref]
  16. Leal DA, Franco RM, , 2008. Moluscos bivalves destinados ao consumo humano como vetores de protozoários patogênicos: metodologias de detecção e normas de controles. Rev Panam Infectol 10: 4857.
  17. Carvalho-Almeida TT, Pinto PLS, Quadros CM, Torres DM, Kanamura HY, Casimiro AM, , 2006. Detection of Cryptosporidium sp. in non diarrheal faeces from children, in a day care center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 48: 2732.[Crossref]
  18. Gonçalves EM, Silva AJ, Eduardo MB, Uemura IH, Moura IN, Castilho VL, Corbett CE, , 2006. Multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium hominis associated with diarrhea outbreak in a day care unit in São Paulo. Clinics 61: 119126.[Crossref]
  19. Carvalho Almeida TT, Cassemiro AM, Matté GR, Matté MH, , 2005. An improved method for extracting Cryptosporidium sp. DNA from preserved faeces and potential application for cryptosporidiosis surveillance. REVISA 1: 208210.
  20. Gonçalves EM, Araújo RS, Orban MI, Matté GR, Matté MH, Corbett CE, , 2008. Protocol for DNA extraction of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in fecal samples. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 50: 165167.[Crossref]
  21. Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental—CETESB, 2006. Relatório de Qualidade das Ááguas Interiores do Estado de São Paulo: CETESB, 2007. Available at: http://www.cetesb.sp.gov.br/Agua/rios/publicacoes.asp. Accessed January 20, 2008.
  22. Araujo RS, Carvalho RT, Matte GR, Fernades LN, Balsalobre LC, Matte MH, , 2010. Modified method for detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts using DNA templates extracted from environmental samples. Rev Inst Adolfo Lutz 69: 141143.
  23. Coupe S, Sarfati C, Hamane S, Derouin F, , 2005. Detection of Cryptosporidium and identification to the species level by nested PCR and restriction fragment length plymorphism. J Clin Microbiol 43: 10171023.[Crossref]
  24. Xiao L, Kerri AA, Jiang J, , 2006. Detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water: effect of the number of samples and analytic replicates on test results. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 59425947.[Crossref]
  25. Ivanova EP, Romanenko LA, Matté MH, Matté GR, Lysenko AM, Simidu U, Kita-Tsukamoto K, Sawabe T, Vysotskii MV, Frolova GM, Mikhailov V, Christen R, Colwell RR, , 2001. Retrieval of the species Alteromonas tetraodonis Simidu et al. 1990 as Pseudoalteromonas tetraodonis comb. nov. and emendation of description. Int J Sys Evol Microbiol 51: 10711078.[Crossref]
  26. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S, , 2007. MEGA4: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24: 15961599.[Crossref]
  27. Kumar S, Nei M, Dudley J, Tamura K, , 2008. MEGA: a biologist-centric software for evolutionary analysis of DNA and protein sequences. Brief Bioinform 9: 299306.[Crossref]
  28. Saitou N, Nei M, , 1987. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol 4: 406425.
  29. Tamura K, Nei M, Kumar S, , 2004. Prospects for inferring very large phylogenies by using the neighbor-joining method. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 1103011035.[Crossref]
  30. Xiao L, Fayer R, Ryan U, Upton SJ, , 2004. Cryptosporidium taxonomy, recent advences and implications for public health. Clin Microbiol Rev 17: 7277.[Crossref]
  31. Jiang J, Alderisio KA, Singh A, Xiao L, , 2005a. Development of procedures for direct extraction of Cryptosporidium DNA from water concentrates and for relief of PCR inhibitors. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 11351141.[Crossref]
  32. Ruecker NJ, Braithwaite SL, Topp E, Edge T, Lapen DR, Wilkes G, Robertson W, Medeiros D, Sensen CW, Neumann NF, , 2007. Tracking host sources of Cryptosporidium spp. in raw water for improved health risk assessment. Appl Environ Microbiol 73: 39453957.[Crossref]
  33. Heller L, Vieira MB, Brito LL, Salvador DP, , 2006. Desempenho da filtração lenta em areia submetida a cargas de pico de oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. bactérias e sólidos: uma avaliação em instalação piloto. Eng Sanit Ambient 11: 2738.
  34. Sato MI, Galvani AT, Padula JA, Razzolini MT, Hachich EM, , 2007. Assessing the risk from Giardia and Cryptosporidium in public water delivered by surface water systems. In: 14th International Symposium on Health—Related Water Microbiology, Tokyo. 14th International Symposium on Health-Related Water Microbiology.
  35. Ferguson C, Deere D, Sinclair M, Chalmers RM, Elwin K, Hadfield S, Xiao L, Ryan U, Gasser R, El-Osta YA, Stevens M, , 2006. Meeting report: application of genotyping methods to assess risks from Cryptosporidium in watersheds. Environ Health Perspect 114: 430434.[Crossref]
  36. Jiang J, Alderisio KA, Xiao L, , 2005. Distribution of Cryptosporidium genotypes in storm event water samples from three watersheds in New York. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 44464454.[Crossref]
  37. Xiao L, Singh A, Limor J, Graczyk TK, Gradus S, Lal A, , 2001. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium oocysts in samples of raw surface water and wastewater. Appl Environ Microbiol 67: 10971101.[Crossref]
  38. Environmental Protection Agency United States – EPA, 2005. Washington, DC. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/microbes/. Accessed February 4, 2008.
  39. Humber F, Da Silva S, Bomfim TC, Teixeira KR, Bello AR, , 2007. Genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium sp. from domestic animals in Brazil. Vet Parasitol 150: 6574.[Crossref]
  40. Araújo AJ, Kanamura HY, Almeida ME, Gomes AH, Pinto TH, Da Silva AJ, , 2008. Genotypic identification of Cryptosporidium spp. isolated from HIV-infected patients and immunocompetent children of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 50: 139143.[Crossref]
  41. Antunes RG, Simões DC, Nakamura AA, Meireles MV, , 2008. Natural infection with Cryptosporidium galli in canaries (Serinus canaria), in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), and in lesser seed-finches (Oryzoborus angolensis) from Brazil. Avian Dis 52: 702705.[Crossref]
  42. Gatei W, Greensill J, Ashford RW, Cuevas LE, Parry CM, Cunliffe NA, Beeching NJ, Hart CA, , 2003. Molecular analysis of the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium parasites from patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus infections living in Kenya, Malawi, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam. J Clin Microbiol 41: 14581462.[Crossref]
  43. Lallo M, Bondan EF, , 2006. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium sp. in institutionalized dogs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Saude Publica 40: 120125.[Crossref]
  44. Meireles MV, Soares RM, Santos MM, Gennari SM, , 2006. Biological studies and molecular characterization of a Cryptosporidium isolate from ostriches (Struthio camelus). J Parasitol 92: 623626.[Crossref]
  45. Meireles MV, Soares RM, Bonello F, Gennari SM, , 2007. Natural infection with zoonotic subtype of Cryptosporidium parvum in capybara (Hydrohoerus hydrochaeris) from Brazil. Vet Parasitol 147: 166170.[Crossref]
  46. Nakamura AA, Simões DC, Antunes RG, Silva DC, Meireles MV, , 2009. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of birds kept in captivity in Brazil. Vet Parasitol 166: 4751.[Crossref]
  47. Santos MM, Peiró JR, Meireles MV, , 2005. Cryptosporidium infection in ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Brazil: clinical, morphological and molecular studies. Braz J Poul Sci 7: 113117.
  48. Féres FC, Lombardi AL, Carvalho MP, Mendes LC, Peiró JR, Cadioli FA, Meireles MV, Perri SH, Feitosa FL, , 2009. Ocorrência e caracterização molecular de Cryptosporidium em cordeiros. Arq Bras Med Vet Zootec 61: 10021005.[Crossref]
  49. Bushen OU, Kohli A, Pinkerton RC, Dupnik K, Newman RD, Sears CL, Fayer R, Lima AA, Guerrant RL, , 2007. Heavy cryptosporidial infections in children in northeast Brazil: comparison of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 378384.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0449
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0449
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Erratum

  • Received : 12 Aug 2010
  • Accepted : 09 May 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error