1921
Volume 84, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

, a paralog of the candidate vaccine antigen merozoite surface protein 1, possesses a signal peptide at its N-terminus and two epidermal growth factor–like domains at its C-terminus with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol attachment site. The gene locus may have originated by a duplication of the gene locus in a common ancestor of the analyzed species and lost from , , and during their evolutionary history. Full-length sequences of the gene were generally highly conserved; they had a few amino acid substitutions, one highly polymorphic E/Q-rich region, and a single-to-triple hepta-peptide repeat motif. Twenty-one distinguishable allelic types (A1–A21) of the E/Q-rich region were identified from worldwide isolates. Among them, four types were detected in isolates from South Korea. The length polymorphism of the E/Q-rich region might be useful as a genetic marker for population structure studies in malaria-endemic areas.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0432
2011-02-04
2018-12-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/84/2/292.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0432&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Price RN, Tjitra E, Guerra CA, Yeung S, White NJ, Anstey NM, , 2007. Vivax malaria: neglected and not benign. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 7987. [Google Scholar]
  2. Mueller I, Galinski MR, Baird JK, Carlton JM, Kochar DK, Alonso PL, del Portillo HA, , 2009. Key gaps in the knowledge of Plasmodium vivax, a neglected human malaria parasite. Lancet Infect Dis 9: 555566.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Herrera S, Corradin G, Arevalo-Herrera M, , 2007. An update on the search for a Plasmodium vivax vaccine. Trends Parasitol 23: 122128.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Udomsangpetch R, Kaneko O, Chotivanich K, Sattabongkot J, , 2008. Cultivation of Plasmodium vivax . Trends Parasitol 24: 8588.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Galinski MR, Barnwell JW, , 2008. Plasmodium vivax: who cares? Malar J 7 (Suppl 1): S9.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Black CG, Barnwell JW, Huber CS, Galinski MR, Coppel RL, , 2002. The Plasmodium vivax homologues of merozoite surface proteins 4 and 5 from Plasmodium falciparum are expressed at different locations in the merozoite. Mol Biochem Parasitol 120: 215224.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Perez-Leal O, Sierra AY, Barrero CA, Moncada C, Martinez P, Cortes J, Lopez Y, Torres E, Salazar LM, Patarroyo MA, , 2004. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 8 cloning, expression, and characterisation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 324: 13931399.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Perez-Leal O, Sierra AY, Barrero CA, Moncada C, Martinez P, Cortes J, Lopez Y, Salazar LM, Hoebeke J, Patarroyo MA, , 2005. Identifying and characterising the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 10 Plasmodium vivax homologue. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 331: 11781184.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. de Oliveira CI, Wunderlich G, Levitus G, Soares IS, Rodrigues MM, Tsuji M, del Portillo HA, , 1999. Antigenic properties of the merozoite surface protein 1 gene of Plasmodium vivax . Vaccine 17: 29592968.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Udagama PV, Gamage-Mendis AC, David PH, Peiris JS, Perera KL, Mendis KN, Carter R, , 1990. Genetic complexity of Plasmodium vivax parasites in individual human infections analyzed with monoclonal antibodies against variant epitopes on a single parasite protein. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42: 104110. [Google Scholar]
  11. Putaporntip C, Jongwutiwes S, Sakihama N, Ferreira MU, Kho WG, Kaneko A, Kanbara H, Hattori T, Tanabe K, , 2002. Mosaic organization and heterogeneity in frequency of allelic recombination of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 locus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99: 1634816353.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Cui L, Escalante AA, Imwong M, Snounou G, , 2003. The genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax populations. Trends Parasitol 19: 220226.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Gilson PR, Nebl T, Vukcevic D, Moritz RL, Sargeant T, Speed TP, Schofield L, Crabb BS, , 2006. Identification and stoichiometry of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . Mol Cell Proteomics 5: 12861299.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Carlton JM, Adams JH, Silva JC, Bidwell SL, Lorenzi H, Caler E, Crabtree J, Angiuoli SV, Merino EF, Amedeo P, Cheng Q, Coulson RM, Crabb BS, Del Portillo HA, Essien K, Feldblyum TV, Fernandez-Becerra C, Gilson PR, Gueye AH, Guo X, Kang'a S, Kooij TW, Korsinczky M, Meyer EV, Nene V, Paulsen I, White O, Ralph SA, Ren Q, Sargeant TJ, Salzberg SL, Stoeckert CJ, Sullivan SA, Yamamoto MM, Hoffman SL, Wortman JR, Gardner MJ, Galinski MR, Barnwell JW, Fraser-Liggett CM, , 2008. Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax . Nature 455: 757763.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Edgar RC, , 2004. MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput. Nucleic Acids Res 32: 17921797.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Nei M, Gojobori T, , 1986. Simple methods for estimating the numbers of synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions. Mol Biol Evol 3: 418426. [Google Scholar]
  17. Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S, , 2007. MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol 24: 15961299.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Jones DT, Taylor WR, Thornton JM, , 1992. The rapid generation of mutation data matrices from protein sequences. Comput Appl Biosci 8: 275282. [Google Scholar]
  19. Felsenstein J, , 1993. PHYL1P (Phylogeny Inference Package) Version 3.5c. Seattle, WA: Department of Genetics, University of Washington. [Google Scholar]
  20. Thakur A, Alam MT, Sharma YD, , 2008. Genetic diversity in the C-terminal 42 kDa region of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP-1(42)) among Indian isolates. Acta Trop 108: 5863.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Putaporntip C, Jongwutiwes S, Ferreira MU, Kanbara H, Udomsangpetch R, Cui L, , 2009. Limited global diversity of the Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 4 gene. Infect Genet Evol 9: 821826.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Thakur A, Alam MT, Bora H, Kaur P, Sharma YD, , 2008. Plasmodium vivax: sequence polymorphism and effect of natural selection at apical membrane antigen 1 (PvAMA1) among Indian population. Gene 419: 3542.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Rayner JC, Huber CS, Feldman D, Ingravallo P, Galinski MR, Barnwell JW, , 2004. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein PvMSP-3 beta is radically polymorphic through mutation and large insertions and deletions. Infect Genet Evol 4: 309319.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  24. Leclerc MC, Menegon M, Cligny A, Noyer JL, Mammadov S, Aliyev N, Gasimov E, Majori G, Severini C, , 2004. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Azerbaijan. Malar J 3: 40.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Niederwieser I, Felger I, Beck HP, , 2001. Limited polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum sexual-stage antigens. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 911. [Google Scholar]
  26. Brocchieri L, , 2001. Low-complexity regions in Plasmodium proteins: in search of a function. Genome Res 11: 195197.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Aurrecoechea C, Brestelli J, Brunk BP, Dommer J, Fischer S, Gajria B, Gao X, Gingle A, Grant G, Harb OS, Heiges M, Innamorato F, Iodice J, Kissinger JC, Kraemer E, Li W, Miller JA, Nayak V, Pennington C, Pinney DF, Roos DS, Ross C, Stoeckert CJ, Jr Treatman C, Wang H, , 2009. PlasmoDB: a functional genomic database for malaria parasites. Nucleic Acids Res 37: D539D543.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Pizzi E, Frontali C, , 2001. Low-complexity regions in Plasmodium falciparum proteins. Genome Res 11: 218229.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Tanabe K, Sakihama N, Kaneko A, , 2004. Stable SNPs in malaria antigen genes in isolated populations. Science 303: 493.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0432
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0432
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 30 Jul 2010
  • Accepted : 07 Oct 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error