Volume 84, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater ( = 4), surface water ( = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water ( = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Mara DD, , 2003. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the health of developing nations. Public Health 117: 452456.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. World Health Organization and UNICEF, 2010. Progress on Sanitation and Drinking Water: 2010 Update. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/9789241563956/en/index.html. Accessed September 7, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  3. World Health Organization and UNICEF, 2004. Meeting the MDG Drinking Water and Sanitation Target: The Urban and Rural Challenges of the Decade. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2006/en/index.html. Accessed June 11, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  4. World Health Organization, 2008. Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1668. [Google Scholar]
  5. Ashbolt NJ, , 2004. Microbial contamination of drinking water and disease outcomes in developing regions. Toxicology 198: 229238.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Reynolds K, Mena K, Gerba C, , 2008. Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in the United States. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 192: 117158. [Google Scholar]
  7. Arnold BF, Colford JM, , 2007. Treating water with chlorine at point-of-use to improve water quality and reduce child diarrhea in developing countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 354364. [Google Scholar]
  8. Boschi-Pinto C, Velebit L, Shibuya K, , 2008. Estimating child mortality due to diarrhoea in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ 86: 710717.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. UNICEF, 2007. The State of the World's Children 2008: Child Survival. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/sowc08/. Accessed June 11, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  10. Pronk W, Zurbrugg C, Swartz C, Pronk W, , 2008. Decentralized systems for potable water and the potential of membrane technology. Water Res 43: 245265. [Google Scholar]
  11. Lee EJ, Schwab KJ, , 2005. Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries. J Water Health 3: 109127. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sobsey MD, , 2002. Managing Water in the Home: Accelerated Health Gains from Improved Water Supply. Available at: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/wsh0207/en/. Accessed June 11, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  13. Opryszko MC, Huang H, Soderlund K, Schwab KJ, , 2009. Data gaps in evidence-based research on small water enterprises in developing countries. J Water Health 7: 609622.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. United Nations Development Programme, 2009. Human Development Report 2009. Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2009/. Accessed June 4, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  15. World Health Organization, 2006. Mortality Country Fact Sheet 2006: Ghana. Available at: http://www.who.int/countries/gha/gha/en/. Accessed May 31, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  16. Medema GJ, Payment P, Dufour A, Robertson W, Waite M, Hunter P, Kirby R, Anderson Y, , 2003. Safe drinking water: an ongoing challenge. World Health Organization, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, eds. Assessing Microbial Safety in Drinking Water: Improving Approaches and Methods. London, United Kingdom: IWA Publishing, 1146. [Google Scholar]
  17. Payment P, Waite M, Dufour A, , 2003. Introducing parameters for the assessment of drinking water quality. World Health Organization, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, eds. Assessing Microbial Safety of Drinking Water: Improving Approaches and Methods. London, United Kingdom: IWA Publishing, 4778. [Google Scholar]
  18. Gerba C, Goyal S, LaBelle R, Cech I, Bodgan G, , 1979. Failure of indicator bacteria to reflect the occurrence of enteroviruses in marine waters. Am J Public Health 69: 11161119.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Harwood VJ, Levine AD, Scott TM, Chivukula V, Lukasik J, Farrah SR, Rose JB, , 2005. Validity of the indicator organism paradigm for pathogen reduction in reclaimed water and public health protection. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 31633170.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Rose JB, Gerba CP, Jakubowski W, , 1991. Survey of potable water-supplies for Cryptospordium and Giardia . Environ Sci Technol 25: 13931400.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Semenza JC, Roberts L, Henderson A, Bogan J, Rubin CH, , 1998. Water distribution system and diarrheal disease transmission: a case study in Uzbekistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 941946. [Google Scholar]
  22. Crump JA, Okoth GO, Slutsker L, Ogaja DO, Keswick BH, Luby SP, , 2004. Effect of point- of-use disinfection, flocculation and combined flocculation-disinfection on drinking water quality in western Kenya. J Appl Microbiol 97: 225231.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Crump JA, Otieno PO, Slutsker L, Keswick BH, Rosen DH, Hoekstra RM, Vulule JM, Luby SP, , 2005. Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhoea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomized controlled trial. BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.38512.618681.E0. [Google Scholar]
  24. Sobsey MD, Handzel T, Venczel L, , 2003. Chlorination and safe storage of household drinking water in developing countries to reduce waterborne disease. Water Sci Technol 47: 221228. [Google Scholar]
  25. Colindres RE, Jain S, Bowen A, Domond P, Mintz E, , 2007. After the flood: an evaluation of in-home drinking water treatment with combined flocculent-disinfectant following tropical storm jeanne—Gonaives, Haiti, 2004. J Water Health 5: 367374.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Cobbina SJ, Anyidoho LY, Nyame F, Hodgson IO, , 2009. Water quality status of dugouts from five districts in northern Ghana: implications for sustainable water resources management in a water stressed tropical savannah environment. Environ Monit Assess, doi:10.1007/s10661-009-1059-6. [Google Scholar]
  27. Polaczyk A, Narayanan J, Cromeans T, Hahn D, Roberts J, Amburgey J, Hill V, , 2008. Ultrafiltration-based techniques for rapid and simultaneous concentration of multiple microbe classes from 100-L tap water samples. J Microbiol Methods 73: 9299.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. McQuaig SM, Scott TM, Lukasik JO, Paul JH, Harwood VJ, , 2009. Quantification of human polyomaviruses JC virus and BK virus by TaqMan quantitative PCR and comparison to other water quality indicators in water and fecal samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 75: 33793388.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Jothikumar N, Cromeans T, Hill V, Lu X, Sobsey M, Erdman D, , 2005. Quantitative real-time PCR assays for detection of human adenoviruses and identification of serotypes 40 and 41. Appl Environ Microbiol 71: 31313136.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  30. Jothikumar N, Cromeans TL, Robertson BH, Meng XJ, Hill VR, , 2006. A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus. J Virol Methods 131: 6571.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  31. Kageyama T, Kojima S, Shinohara M, Uchida K, Fukushi S, Hoshino FB, Takeda N, Katayama K, , 2003. Broadly reactive and highly sensitive assay for norwalk-like viruses based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol 41: 15481557.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  32. Gregory JB, Litaker RW, Noble RT, , 2006. Rapid one-step quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assay with competitive internal positive control for detection of enteroviruses in environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 39603967.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  33. Schlueter V, Schmolke S, Stark K, Hess G, Ofenloch-Haehnle B, Engel AM, , 1996. Reverse transcription-PCR detection of hepatitis G virus. J Clin Microbiol 34: 26602664. [Google Scholar]
  34. Lambertini E, Spencer S, Bertz P, Loge F, Kieke B, Borchardt M, , 2008. Concentration of enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and noroviruses from drinking water by use of glass wool filters. Appl Environ Microbiol 74: 29902996.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2009. National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Available at: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/contaminants/index.html. Accessed June 13, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  36. Schmoll O, Howard G, Chilton J, Chorus I, , 2006. Protecting Groundwater for Health: Managing the Quality of Drinking-Water Sources. London, United Kingdom: World Health Organization IWA Publishing, 537650. [Google Scholar]
  37. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2009. Fact Sheet: Final Third Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL 3). Available at: www.epa.gov/safewater/ccl/pdfs/ccl3_docs/fs_cc3_final.pdf. Accessed May 24, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  38. Purcell RH, Emerson SU, , 2008. Hepatitis E: an emerging awareness of an old disease. J Hepatol 48: 494503.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Emerson S, Purcell R, , 2003. Hepatitis E virus. Rev Med Virol 13: 145154.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  40. Bofill-Mas S, Pina S, Girones R, , 2000. Documenting the epidemiologic patterns of polyomaviruses in human populations by studying their presence in urban sewage. Appl Environ Microbiol 66: 238245.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  41. Hundesa A, Maluquer de Motes C, Bofill-Mas S, Albinana-Gimenez N, Girones R, , 2006. Identification of human and animal adenoviruses and polyomaviruses for determination of sources of fecal contamination in the environment. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 78867893.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Bofill-Mas S, Albinana-Gimenez N, Clemente-Casares P, Hundesa A, Rodriguez-Manzano J, Allard A, Calvo M, Girones R, , 2006. Quantification and stability of human adenoviruses and polyomavirus JCPyV in wastewater matrices. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 78847896.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  43. Albinana-Gimenez N, Clemente-Casares P, Bofill-Mas S, Hundesa A, Ribas F, Girones R, , 2006. Distribution of human polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and hepatitis E virus in the environment and in a drinking-water treatment plant. Environ Sci Technol 40: 74167422.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  44. McQuaig SM, Scott TM, Harwood VJ, Farrah SR, Lukasik JO, , 2006. Detection of human-derived fecal pollution in environmental waters by use of a PCR-based human polyomavirus assay. Appl Environ Microbiol 72: 75677574.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  45. Borchardt MA, Haas NL, Hunt RJ, , 2004. Vulnerability of drinking-water wells in La Crosse, Wisconsin, to enteric-virus contamination from surface water contributions. Appl Environ Microbiol 70: 59375946.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  46. Abbaszadegan M, LeChevallier MW, Gerba CP, , 2003. Occurrence of viruses in US groundwaters. J Am Water Works Assoc 95: 107120. [Google Scholar]
  47. Duizer E, Bijkerk P, Rockx B, De Groot A, Twisk F, Koopmans M, , 2004. Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 70: 45384543.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  48. Limsawat S, Ohgaki S, , 1997. Fate of liberated viral RNA in wastewater determined by PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol 63: 29322933. [Google Scholar]
  49. Schwab KJ, Estes MK, Neill FH, Atmar RL, , 1997. Use of heat release and an internal RNA standard control in reverse transcription-PCR detection of norwalk virus from stool samples. J Clin Microbiol 35: 511514. [Google Scholar]
  50. Stevenson J, Hymas W, Hillyard D, , 2008. The use of armored RNA as a multi-purpose internal control for RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 150: 7376.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  51. Dreier J, Störmer M, Kleesiek K, , 2005. Use of bacteriophage MS2 as an internal control in viral reverse transcription-PCR assays. J Clin Microbiol 43: 45514557.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 08 Jul 2010
  • Accepted : 05 Oct 2010
  • Published online : 05 Jan 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error