1921
Volume 84, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

The malaria vaccine candidate antigens erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (EBA-175), merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP-3), and apical membrane antigen (AMA-1) from isolates from countries in central and west Africa were assessed for allelic diversity. Samples were collected on filter paper from 600 -infected symptomatic patients in Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Senegal and screened for class-specific amplification fragments. Genetic diversity, assessed by mean heterozygosity, was comparable among countries. We detected a clinical increase in allele frequency from west to east across the study region. No statistical difference in allele distribution between countries was observed. The 3D7 alleles were present at a lower frequency in central Africa than in West Africa. We also detected little to no genetic differentiation among sampling locations. This finding indicates that, at least at the level of resolution offered by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, these antigens showed remarkable genetic homogeneity throughout the region sampled, perhaps caused by balancing selection to maintain a diverse array of antigen haplotyes.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0365
2011-02-04
2018-12-13
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/84/2/276.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0365&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2009. Report. Available at: http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2009/en/index.html. [Google Scholar]
  2. Roberts L, Enserink M, , 2007. Did they really say eradication? Science 318: 15441545.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Tolia N, Enemark EJ, Sim BKL, Joshua-Tor L, , 2005. Structural basis for the EBA-175 erythrocyte invasion pathway of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . Cell 122: 183193.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Miller LH, Roberts T, Shahabuddin M, McCutchan TF, , 1993. Analysis of sequence diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1). Mol Biochem Parasitol 59: 114.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Takala SL, Plowe CV, , 2009. Genetic diversity and malaria vaccine design, testing and efficacy: preventing and overcoming ‘vaccine resistant malaria'. Parasite Immunol 31: 560573.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Ferreira M, da Silva Nunes M, Wunderlich G, , 2004. Antigenic diversity and immune evasion by malaria parasites. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11: 987995. [Google Scholar]
  7. Luxemburger C, Thwai KL, White NJ, Webster HK, Kyle DE, Maelankirri L, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Nosten F, , 1996. The epidemiology of malaria in a Karen population on the western border of Thailand. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 90: 105111.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Molineaux L, Gramiccia G, , 1980. The Garki Project, Research on the Epidemiology and Control of Malaria in the Sudan Savanna of West Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization. [Google Scholar]
  9. Theander T, , 1998. Unstable malaria in Sudan. The influence of the dry season. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92: 589592.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Anderson TJ, Haubold B, Williams JT, Estrada-Franco JG, Richardson L, Mollinedo R, Bockarie M, Mokili J, Mharakurwa S, French N, Whitworth J, Velez ID, Brockman AH, Nosten F, Ferreira MU, Day KP, , 2000. Microsatellite markers reveal a spectrum of population structures in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum . Mol Biol Evol 17: 14671482.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Chenet S, Branch OH, Escalante AA, Lucas CM, Bacon JD, , 2007. Genetic diversity of vaccine candidate antigens in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from the Amazon basin of Peru. Malar J 7: 93.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Takala SL, Coulibaly D, Thera MA, Dicko A, Smith DL, Guindo AB, Kone AK, Traore K, Ouattara A, Djimde AA, Sehdev PS, Lyke KE, Diallo DA, Doumbo OK, Plowe CV, , 2007. Dynamics of polymorphism in a malaria vaccine antigen at a vaccine-testing site in Mali. PLoS Med 4: e93.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Adams JH, Sim BK, Dolan SA, Fang X, Kaslow DC, Miller LH, , 1992. A family of erythrocyte binding proteins of malaria parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 70857089.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Sim BK, Orlandi PA, Haynes JD, Klotz FW, Carter JM, Camus D, Zegans ME, Chulay JD, , 1990. Primary structure of the 175K Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen and identification of a peptide which elicits antibodies that inhibit malaria merozoite invasion. J Cell Biol 111: 18771884.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Toure F, Bisseye C, Mavoungou E, , 2006. Imbalanced distribution of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-175 genotypes related to clinical status in children from Bakoumba, Gabon. Clin Med Res 4: 711.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Binks RH, Baum J, Oduola AM, Arnot DE, Babiker HA, Kremsner PG, Roper C, Greenwood BM, Conway DJ, , 2001. Population genetic analysis of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (eba-175) gene. Mol Biochem Parasitol 114: 6370.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  17. Cramer JP, Mockenhaupt FP, Mohl I, Dittrich S, Dietz E, Otchwemah RN, Ehrhardt S, Bienzle U, Jelinek T, , 2004. Allelic dimorphism of the erythrocyte binding antigen-175 (eba-175) gene of Plasmodium falciparum and severe malaria: significant association of the C-segment with fatal outcome in Ghanaian children. Malar J 3: 11.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Coley AM, Gupta A, Murphy VJ, Ba T, Kim H, Foley M, Anders RF, Batchelor AH, , 208. Structure of the malaria antigen AMA1 in complex with a growth-inhibitory antibody. PLoS Pathog 3: 13081319. [Google Scholar]
  19. Escalante A, Grebert HM, Chaiyaroj SC, Magris M, Biswas S, Nahlen BL, Lal AA, , 2001. Polymorphism in the gene encoding the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) of Plasmodium falciparum. X. Asembo Bay Cohort Project. Mol Biochem Parasitol 113: 279287.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  20. Marshall V, Zhang L, Anders RF, Coppel RL, , 1996. Diversity of the vaccine candidate AMA-1 of Plasmodium falciparum . Mol Biochem Parasitol 77: 109113.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Kocken CH, Narum DL, Massougbodji A, Ayivi B, Dubbeld MA, van der Wel A, Conway DJ, Sanni A, Thomas AW, , 2000. Molecular characterisation of Plasmodium reichenowi apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1), comparison with P. falciparum AMA-1, and antibody-mediated inhibition of red cell invasion. Mol Biochem Parasitol 109: 147156.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  22. Garg S, Alam MT, Das MK, Dev V, Kumar A, Dash AP, Sharma YD, , 2007. Sequence diversity and natural selection at domain I of the apical membrane antigen 1 among Indian Plasmodium falciparum populations. Malar J 6: 154.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  23. Oeuvray C, Bouharoun-Tayoun H, Gras-Masse H, Bottius E, Kaidoh T, Aikawa M, Filgueira MC, Tartar A, Druilhe P, , 1994. Merozoite surface protein-3: a malaria protein inducing antibodies that promote Plasmodium falciparum killing by cooperation with blood monocytes. Blood 84: 15941602. [Google Scholar]
  24. McColl D, Anders RF, , 1997. Conservation of structural motifs and antigenic diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP-3). Mol Biochem Parasitol 90: 2131.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  25. Oeuvray C, Bouharoun-Tayoun H, Grass-Masse H, Lepers JP, Ralamboranto L, Tartar A, Druilhe P, , 1994. A novel merozoite surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (MSP-3) identified by cellular-antibody cooperative mechanism antigenicity and biological activity of antibodies. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 89 (Suppl 2): 7780.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  26. Huber W, Felger I, Matile H, Lipps HJ, Steiger S, Beck HP, , 1997. Limited sequence polymorphism in the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3. Mol Biochem Parasitol 87: 231234.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  27. Okenu DM, Thomas AW, Conway DJ, , 2000. Allelic lineages of the merozoite surface protein 3 gene in Plasmodium reichenowi and Plasmodium falciparum . Mol Biochem Parasitol 109: 185188.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  28. Nebie I, Diarra A, Ouedraogo A, Soulama I, Bougouma EC, Tiono AB, Konate AT, Chilengi R, Theisen M, Dodoo D, Remarque E, Bosomprah S, Milligan P, Sirima SB, , 2008. Humoral responses to Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens and association with incidence of clinical malaria in children living in an area of seasonal malaria transmission in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Infect Immun 76: 759766.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  29. Samba-Kimbata J, , 1978. Le Climat du bas Congo. Thèse Doctorat 3ème Cycle, Dijon. [Google Scholar]
  30. Fondjo E, Robert V, Le Goff G, Toto JC, Carnevale P, , 1992. Urban malaria in Yaounde (Cameroon). 2. Entomologic study in 2 suburban districts [in French]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 85: 5763. [Google Scholar]
  31. Baird JK, Owusu Agyei S, Utz GC, Koram K, Barcus MJ, Jones TR, Fryauff DJ, Binka FN, Hoffman SL, Nkrumah FN, , 2002. Seasonal malaria attack rates in infants and young children in northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 280286. [Google Scholar]
  32. Koram KA, Quaye L, Abuaku B, , 2008. Efficacy of amodiaquine/artesunate combination therapy for uncomplicated malaria in children under five years in Ghana. Ghana Med J 42: 5560. [Google Scholar]
  33. Bereczky S, Martensson A, Gil JP, Farnert A, , 2005. Short report: rapid DNA extraction from archive blood spots on filter paper for genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum . Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 249251. [Google Scholar]
  34. Toure F, Mavoungou E, Ndong JM, Tshipamba P, Deloron P, , 2001. Erythrocyte binding antigen (EBA-175) of Plasmodium falciparum: improved genotype determination by nested polymerase chain reaction. Trop Med Int Health 6: 767769.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  35. Peakall R, Smouse PE, , 2005. Genalex 6: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 6: 288295.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  36. Excoffier L, Estoup A, Cornuet JM, , 2005. Bayesian analysis of an admixture model with mutations and arbitrarily linked markers. Genetics 169: 17271738.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  37. Orloci L, , 1978. Multivariate Analysis in Vegetation Research. The Hague, The Netherlands: Dr W. Junk b.v. [Google Scholar]
  38. Conway DJ, , 1997. Natural selection on polymorphic malaria antigens and the search for a vaccine. Parasitol Today 13: 2629.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  39. Soulama I, Bougouma EC, Diarra A, Nebié I, Sirima SB, , 2010. Low-high season variation in Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (eba-175) in malaria endemic area of Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health 15: 5159. [Google Scholar]
  40. Ahouidi A, Bei AK, Neafsey DE, Sarr O, Volkman S, Milner D, Cox-Singh J, Ferreira MU, Ndir O, Premji Z, Mboup S, Duraisingh MT, , 2010. Population genetic analysis of large sequence polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum blood-stage antigens. Infect Genet Evol 10: 200206.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  41. Polley SD, Tetteh KK, Lloyd JM, Akpogheneta OJ, Greenwood BM, Bojang KA, Conway DJ, , 2007. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 3 is a target of allele-specific immunity and alleles are maintained by natural selection. J Infect Dis 195: 279287.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  42. Umar F, Malla N, Dubey ML, , 2009. Genetic polymorphism in msp-2, ama-1 and csp genes in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from north and north-western India. J Vector Borne Dis 46: 109116. [Google Scholar]
  43. Oliveira DA, Udhayakumar V, Bloland P, Shi YP, Nahlen BL, Oloo AJ, Hawley WE, Lal AA, , 1996. Genetic conservation of the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1). Mol Biochem Parasitol 76: 333336.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  44. Wang J, Nguyen V, Glen J, Henderson B, Saul A, Miller LH, , 2005. Improved yield of recombinant merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3) from Pichia pastoris using chemically defined media. Biotechnol Bioeng 90: 838847.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0365
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0365
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental Table

  • Received : 27 Jun 2010
  • Accepted : 02 Nov 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error