1921
Volume 84, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Drug-dosing recommendations for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment are based on the patients' weight or age. A current lack of demographic and anthropometric data on patients hinders (1) the ability of health providers to properly prepare for patient management, (2) an informed drug procurement for disease control, and (3) the design of clinical trials and development of new drug therapies in the different endemic areas. We present information about the age, gender, weight, and height of 29,570 consecutive VL patients presenting to 20 locations in six geographic endemic regions of Brazil, East Africa, Nepal, and India between 1997 and 2009. Our compilation shows substantial heterogeneity in the types of patients seeking care for VL at the clinics within the different locations. This suggests that drug development, procurement, and perhaps even treatment protocols, such as the use of the potentially teratogenic drug miltefosine, may require distinct strategies in these geographic settings.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0321
2011-04-05
2017-11-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/84/4/543.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0321&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, Jamison DT, Murray CJL, , 2006. Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors. Oxford University Press and The World Bank.[Crossref]
  2. Desjeux P, , 2001. The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95: 239243.[Crossref]
  3. Desjeux P, , 2004. Leishmaniasis: current situation and new perspectives. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 27: 305318.[Crossref]
  4. Bern C, Maguire JH, Alvar J, , 2008. Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e313.[Crossref]
  5. van Griensven J, Balasegaram M, Meheus F, Alvar J, Lynen L, Boelaert M, , 2010. Combination therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet Infect Dis 10: 184194.[Crossref]
  6. Mubayi A, Castillo-Chavez C, Chowell G, Kribs-Zaleta C, Ali Siddiqui N, Kumar N, Das P, , 2009. Transmission dynamics and underreporting of Kala-azar in the Indian state of Bihar. J Theor Biol 262: 177185.[Crossref]
  7. Adhikari SR, Maskay NM, , 2003. The economic burden of Kala-azar in households of the Danusha and Mahottari districts of Nepal. Acta Trop 88: 12.[Crossref]
  8. Adhikari SR, Maskay NM, Sharma BP, , 2009. Paying for hospital-based care of Kala-azar in Nepal: assessing catastrophic, impoverishment and economic consequences. Health Policy Plan 24: 129139.[Crossref]
  9. Anoopa Sharma D, Bern C, Varghese B, Chowdhury R, Haque R, Ali M, Amann J, Ahluwalia IB, Wagatsuma Y, Breiman RF, Maguire JH, McFarland DA, , 2006. The economic impact of visceral leishmaniasis on households in Bangladesh. Trop Med Int Health 11: 757764.[Crossref]
  10. Boelaert M, Meheus F, Sanchez A, Singh SP, Vanlerberghe V, Picado A, Meessen B, Sundar S, , 2009. The poorest of the poor: a poverty appraisal of households affected by visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health 14: 639644.[Crossref]
  11. Meheus F, Boelaert M, Baltussen R, Sundar S, , 2006. Costs of patient management of visceral leishmaniasis in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health 11: 17151724.[Crossref]
  12. Rijal S, Koirala S, Van der Stuyft P, Boelaert M, , 2006. The economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis for households in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: 838841.[Crossref]
  13. Anstead GM, Chandrasekar B, Zhao W, Yang J, Perez LE, Melby PC, , 2001. Malnutrition alters the innate immune response and increases early visceralization following Leishmania donovani infection. Infect Immun 69: 47094718.[Crossref]
  14. Cerf BJ, Jones TC, Badaro R, Sampaio D, Teixeira R, Johnson WD, Jr, 1987. Malnutrition as a risk factor for severe visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis 156: 10301033.[Crossref]
  15. Dye C, Williams BG, , 1993. Malnutrition, age and the risk of parasitic disease: visceral leishmaniasis revisited. Proc Biol Sci 254: 3339.[Crossref]
  16. Harrison LH, Naidu TG, Drew JS, de Alencar JE, Pearson RD, , 1986. Reciprocal relationships between undernutrition and the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. Rev Infect Dis 8: 447453.[Crossref]
  17. Khalil EA, Zijlstra EE, Kager PA, El Hassan AM, , 2002. Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of Leishmania donovani infection in two villages in an endemic area in eastern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 7: 3544.[Crossref]
  18. Malafaia G, , 2009. Protein-energy malnutrition as a risk factor for visceral leishmaniasis: a review. Parasite Immunol 31: 587596.[Crossref]
  19. Mueller Y, Mbulamberi DB, Odermatt P, Hoffmann A, Loutan L, Chappuis F, , 2009. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality of visceral leishmaniasis patients in eastern Uganda. Trop Med Int Health 14: 910917.[Crossref]
  20. Kolaczinski JH, Reithinger R, Worku DT, Ocheng A, Kasimiro J, Kabatereine N, Brooker S, , 2008. Risk factors of visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa: a case-control study in Pokot territory of Kenya and Uganda. Int J Epidemiol 37: 344352.[Crossref]
  21. Burki T, , 2009. East African countries struggle with visceral leishmaniasis. Lancet 374: 371372.[Crossref]
  22. Alvar J, Bashaye S, Argaw D, Cruz I, Aparicio P, Kassa A, Orfanos G, Parreno F, Babaniyi O, Gudeta N, Canavate C, Bern C, , 2007. Kala-azar outbreak in Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia: epidemiologic and parasitologic assessment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 275282.
  23. Herrero M, Orfanos G, Argaw D, Mulugeta A, Aparicio P, Parreno F, Bernal O, Rubens D, Pedraza J, Lima MA, Flevaud L, Palma PP, Bashaye S, Alvar J, Bern C, , 2009. Natural history of a visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in highland Ethiopia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 373377.
  24. Raguenaud ME, Jansson A, Vanlerberghe V, Van der Auwera G, Deborggraeve S, Dujardin JC, Orfanos G, Reid T, Boelaert M, , 2007. Epidemiology and clinical features of patients with visceral leishmaniasis treated by an MSF clinic in Bakool Region, Somalia, 2004–2006. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 1: e85.[Crossref]
  25. Rukunuzzaman M, Rahman M, , 2008. Epidemiological study of risk factors related to childhood visceral leishmaniasis. Mymensingh Med J 17: 4650.
  26. Alvar J, Croft S, Olliaro P, , 2006. Chemotherapy in the treatment and control of leishmaniasis. Adv Parasitol 61: 223274.[Crossref]
  27. World Health Organization, 2009. World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund. Child Growth Standards and the Identification of Severe Acute Malnutrition in Infants and Children. A Joint Statement by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund. Available at: http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/severemalnutrition/9789241598163/en/index.html. Accessed October 9, 2009.
  28. World Health Organization, 2009. WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study Group. WHO Child Growth Standards: Growth Velocity Based on Weight, Length and Head Circumference. Methods and Development. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  29. de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J, , 2007. Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ 85: 660667.[Crossref]
  30. World Health Organization, 2009. BMI Classification. Global Database on Body Mass Index. Available at: http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html. Accessed October 9, 2009.
  31. World Health Organization, 2009. WHO Anthro Software and Macros. Available at: http://www.who.int/entity/childgrowth/software/en. Accessed October 9, 2009.
  32. World Health Organization, 2009. WHO Anthro Software and Macros (5–19 Years). Available at: http://www.who.int/growthref/tools/en/. Accessed October 9, 2009.
  33. Quade D, , 1966. On analysis of variance for the k-Sample problem. Ann Math Stat 37: 17471758.[Crossref]
  34. Hajek J, , 1969. A Course in Nonparametric Statistics. San Francisco, CA: Holden-Day.
  35. Taylor WR, Terlouw DJ, Olliaro PL, White NJ, Brasseur P, ter Kuile FO, , 2006. Use of weight-for-age-data to optimize tablet strength and dosing regimens for a new fixed-dose artesunate-amodiaquine combination for treating falciparum malaria. Bull World Health Organ 84: 956964.[Crossref]
  36. World Health Organization, 2010. Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, 2nd edition. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
  37. World Health Organization Expert Consultation, 2004. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 363: 157163.[Crossref]
  38. van Buuren S, Hayes DJ, Stasinopoulos DM, Rigby RA, ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, , 2009. Estimating regional centile curves from mixed data sources and countries. Stat Med 28: 28912911.[Crossref]
  39. Reithinger R, Brooker S, Kolaczinski JH, , 2009. Visceral leishmaniasis: time to better use existing resources. Lancet 374: 1330.[Crossref]
  40. Ritmeijer K, Davies C, van Zorge R, Wang SJ, Schorscher J, Dongu'du SI, Davidson RN, , 2007. Evaluation of a mass distribution programme for fine-mesh impregnated bednets against visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. Trop Med Int Health 12: 404414.[Crossref]
  41. Olliaro P, Darley S, Laxminarayan R, Sundar S, , 2009. Cost-effectiveness projections of single and combination therapies for visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health 14: 918925.[Crossref]
  42. Olliaro P, Sundar S, , 2009. Anthropometrically derived dosing and drug costing calculations for treating visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India. Trop Med Int Health 14: 8892.[Crossref]
  43. den Boer ML, Alvar J, Davidson RN, Ritmeijer K, Balasegaram M, , 2009. Developments in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 14: 395410.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0321
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0321
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Jun 2010
  • Accepted : 14 Nov 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error