1921
Volume 85, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

cultivation of parasites plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of leishmaniasis and in vaccine and drug development studies. Conversely, long-term cultivation of parasites usually results in decreased infectivity potential. Some studies reported a stimulatory effect of human urine in promastigotes. However, there is no information about the effects of urine within culture on the infectivity of parasites. Analysis of the effect of urine have showed that proliferation indexes were significantly increased in culture medium supplemented with human urine ( = 38.17 ± 5.12, = 34.74 ± 5.6, = 34.22 ± 4.66, and 35.88 ± 6.40) than in controls. Infection indexes were 13 ± 1.7 for , 55 ± 2.2 for , 41 ± 3.14 for , and 49 ± 3.26 for . Our results showed that human urine increased the infectivity and proliferation of parasites.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0207
2011-10-01
2017-12-18
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/85/4/639.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0207&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Desjeux P, , 1992. Human leishmaniases: epidemiology and public health aspects. World Health Stat Q 45: 267275.
  2. Mirejovsky P, Bednar B, Kodetova D, Stejskal J, , 1996. Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis [in Czech]. Cesk Patol 32: 7074.
  3. Visvesvara GS, Garcia LS, , 2002. Culture of protozoan parasites. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 327328.[Crossref]
  4. Mirjalili A, Sarkari B, , 2005. Isolation of infective promastigotes of Leishmania major from long-term culture by cocultivation with macrophage cell line. Biologicals 33: 257260.[Crossref]
  5. Dey T, Afrin F, Anam K, Ali N, , 2002. Infectivity and virulence of Leishmania donovani promastigotes: a role for media, source, and strain of parasite. J Eukaryot Microbiol 49: 270274.[Crossref]
  6. Smejkal RM, Wolff R, Olenick JG, , 1988. Leishmania braziliensis panamensis: increased infectivity resulting from heat shock. Exp Parasitol 65: 19.[Crossref]
  7. Howard MK, Pharoah MM, Ashall F, Miles MA, , 1991. Human urine stimulates growth of Leishmania in vitro . Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 85: 477479.[Crossref]
  8. Iqbal J, Jamshid M, Ahmed B, Bukhari I, Bashir S, Yasinzai MM, , 2006. Some studies on human urine as promoter for the growth of Leishmania in vitro . Pak J Pharm Sci 19: 152155.
  9. Shamsuzzaman SM, Furuya M, Korenaga M, Imamura K, Hashiguchi Y, , 1999. Use of urine samples from healthy humans, nephritis patients or other animals as an alternative to foetal calf serum in the culture of Leishmania (L.) donovani in vitro . Ann Trop Med Parasitol 93: 613620.[Crossref]
  10. Singh S, Mohapatra DP, Sivakumar R, , 2000. Successful replacement of fetal calf serum with human urine for in vitro culture of Leishmania donovani . J Commun Dis 32: 289294.
  11. Warburg A, Gelman S, Deutsch J, , 2008. Xanthine in urine stimulates growth of Leishmania promastigotes in vitro . J Med Microbiol 57: 136138.[Crossref]
  12. Castro H, Romao S, Carvalho S, Teixeira F, Sousa C, Tomas AM, , 2010. Mitochondrial redox metabolism in trypanosomatids is independent of tryparedoxin activity. PLoS ONE 5: e12607.[Crossref]
  13. Lima NM, Correia CS, Leon LL, Machado GM, Madeira Mde F, Santana AE, Goulart MO, , 2004. Antileishmanial activity of lapachol analogues. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99: 757761.[Crossref]
  14. Miguel DC, Yokoyama-Yasunaka JK, Andreoli WK, Mortara RA, Uliana SR, , 2007. Tamoxifen is effective against Leishmania and induces a rapid alkalinization of parasitophorous vacuoles harbouring Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis amastigotes. J Antimicrob Chemother 60: 526534.[Crossref]
  15. Schuster FL, Sullivan JJ, , 2002. Cultivation of clinically significant hemoflagellates. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 374389.[Crossref]
  16. Merlen T, Sereno D, Brajon N, Rostand F, Lemesre JL, , 1999. Leishmania spp.: completely defined medium without serum and macromolecules (CDM/LP) for the continuous in vitro cultivation of infective promastigote forms. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60: 4150.
  17. Campos MB, De Castro Gomes CM, de Souza AA, Lainson R, Corbett CE, Silveira FT, , 2008. In vitro infectivity of species of Leishmania (Viannia) responsible for American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Parasitol Res 103: 771776.[Crossref]
  18. Maia C, Rolao N, Nunes M, Goncalves L, Campino L, , 2007. Infectivity of five different types of macrophages by Leishmania infantum . Acta Trop 103: 150155.[Crossref]
  19. Kuystermans D, Al-Rubeai M, , 2009. cMyc increases cell number through uncoupling of cell division from cell size in CHO cells. BMC Biotechnol 9: 76.[Crossref]
  20. Kapicloglu S, Baki AH, Tekelioglu Y, Araz K, , 2000. The effect of cola consumption on oral mucosa in rats. Dis Esophagus 13: 6971.[Crossref]
  21. Daba S, Mansour NS, Youssef FG, Shanbaky NM, Shehata MG, el Sawaf BM, , 1997. Vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. III. Impact of blood meal from natural vertebrate hosts on the survival and the development of Leishmania infantum and L. major in Phlebotomus langeroni (Diptera: Psychodidae). J Egypt Soc Parasitol 27: 781794.
  22. Antoine JC, , 1995. Co-stimulatory activity of Leishmania-infected macrophages. Parasitol Today 11: 242243.[Crossref]
  23. Daba S, Mansour NS, Youssef FG, Shanbaky NM, el Sawaf BM, , 1997. Vector-host-parasite inter-relationships in leishmaniasis. IV. Electrophoretic studies on proteins of four vertebrate bloods with and without Leishmania infantum or L. major . J Egypt Soc Parasitol 27: 795804.
  24. Bell G, Davidson J, Scarborough H, , 1968. Textbook of Physiology and Biochemistry. 7th edition. Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill-Livingstone.
  25. Berens RL, Brun R, Krassner SM, , 1976. A simple monophasic medium for axenic culture of hemoflagellates. J Parasitol 62: 360365.[Crossref]
  26. Marin F, Garcia de Lomas J, Penarrubia MP, Penalver J, , 1982. Cultivation of Leishmania: comparison of different media for promastigote cultivation. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 76: 607613.[Crossref]
  27. Jaffe C, Grimaldi G, McMahon-Pratt D, Morel CM, , 1984. , ed. The Cultivation and Cloning of Leishmania. Genes and Antigens of Parasites: A Laboratory Manual. Second edition. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: UNDP/World Bank/STDR, 4791.
  28. Randolph S, Nuttall P, , 1994. Nearly right or precisely wrong? Natural versus laboratory studies of vector-borne diseases. Parasitol Today 10: 458462.[Crossref]
  29. Lainson R, Shaw JJ, , 1972. Leishmaniasis of the New World: taxonomic problems. Br Med Bull 28: 4448.[Crossref]
  30. Neal RA, , 1984. Leishmania major: culture media, mouse strains, and promastigote virulence and infectivity. Exp Parasitol 57: 269273.[Crossref]
  31. Nolan TJ, Herman R, , 1985. Effects of long-term in vitro cultivation on Leishmania donovani promastigotes. J Protozool 32: 7075.[Crossref]
  32. Pinto-da-Silva LH, Camurate M, Costa KA, Oliveira SM, da Cunha-e-Silva NL, Saraiva EM, , 2002. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis metacyclic promastigotes purified using Bauhinia purpurea lectin are complement resistant and highly infective for macrophages in vitro and hamsters in vivo . Int J Parasitol 32: 13711377.[Crossref]
  33. Rodrigues Ide A, da Silva BA, dos Santos AL, Vermelho AB, Alviano CS, Dutra PM, Rosa Mdo S, , 2010. A new experimental culture medium for cultivation of Leishmania amazonensis: its efficacy for the continuous in vitro growth and differentiation of infective promastigote forms. Parasitol Res 106: 12491252.[Crossref]
  34. Psihogios NG, Gazi IF, Elisaf MS, Seferiadis KI, Bairaktari ET, , 2008. Gender-related and age-related urinalysis of healthy subjects by NMR-based metabonomics. NMR Biomed 21: 195207.[Crossref]
  35. Gupta N, Goyal N, Singha UK, Bhakuni V, Roy R, Rastogi AK, , 1999. Characterization of intracellular metabolites of axenic amastigotes of Leishmania donovani by 1H NMR spectroscopy. Acta Trop 73: 121133.[Crossref]
  36. Scott DA, Hickerson SM, Vickers TJ, Beverley SM, , 2008. The role of the mitochondrial glycine cleavage complex in the metabolism and virulence of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major . J Biol Chem 283: 155165.[Crossref]
  37. Ferreira KA, Lemos-Junior PE, Lages-Silva E, Ramirez LE, Pedrosa AL, , 2007. Human urine stimulates in vitro growth of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli . Parasitol Res 101: 13831388.[Crossref]
  38. Smirlis D, Bisti SN, Xingi E, Konidou G, Thiakaki M, Soteriadou KP, , 2006. Leishmania histone H1 overexpression delays parasite cell-cycle progression, parasite differentiation and reduces Leishmania infectivity in vivo . Mol Microbiol 60: 14571473.[Crossref]
  39. Wheeler RJ, Gluenz E, Gull K, , 2011. The cell cycle of Leishmania: morphogenetic events and their implications for parasite biology. Mol Microbiol 79: 647662.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0207
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0207
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 09 Apr 2010
  • Accepted : 24 Jun 2011

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error