Volume 84, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Genotyping studies show a polarized geographic distribution of lineages in humans. Here, we assessed their distribution along Latin America through an immunological approach we designated Western blot (WB) assay with Trypomastigote small-surface antigen (TSSA) I and TSSA II (TSSA-WB). These antigens are expressed by I (TCI; now TcI) and II (TCII; reclassified as TcII to TcVI) parasites. TSSA-WB showed good concordance with genotyping tests. An unexpected frequency of TSSA II recognition was observed in Colombia, Venezuela, and Mexico (northern region of Latin America). In Argentina and Paraguay (southern region), immunophenotyping confirmed the already reported TCII (TcII to TcVI) dominance. The lineage distribution between these regions showed significant difference but not among countries within them (except for Colombia and Venezuela). TSSA-WB shows TCII emergence in the northern region where TCI was reported as dominant or even as the unique lineage infecting humans.


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  • Received : 24 Mar 2010
  • Accepted : 05 Sep 2010
  • Published online : 05 Jan 2011

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