Volume 83, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The social acceptability and durability of two house screening interventions were addressed using focus group discussions, questionnaires, indoor climate measurements, and durability surveys. Participants recognized that screening stopped mosquitoes (79–96%) and other insects (86–98%) entering their houses. These and other benefits were appreciated by significantly more recipients of full screening than users of screened ceilings. Full screened houses were 0.26°C hotter at night ( = 0.05) than houses with screened ceilings and 0.51°C ( < 0.001) hotter than houses with no screening (28.43°C), though only 9% of full screened house users and 17% of screened ceiling users complained about the heat. Although 71% of screened doors and 85% of ceilings had suffered some damage after 12 months, the average number of holes of any size was < 5 for doors and < 7 for ceilings. In conclusion, house screening is a well-appreciated and durable vector control tool.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Hanafin JB, , 1928. Further results in mosquito proofing barracks. J R Army Med Corps 51: 127130.
  2. Watson RB, Boyd MF, , 1949. Location and mosquito-proofing of dwellings. , ed. Malariology: A Comprehensive Survey of all Aspects of this Group of Diseases from a Global Standpoint. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 11841202.
  3. Orenstein AJ, , 1912. Screening as an antimalaria measure. A contribution to the study of the value of screened dwellings in malaria regions. Proc Canal Zone Med Assoc 5: 1218.
  4. Lindsay SW, Emerson PM, Charlwood JD, , 2002. Reducing malaria by mosquito-proofing houses. Trends Parasitol 18: 510514.[Crossref]
  5. Kirby MJ, Milligan PJ, Conway D, Lindsay SW, , 2008. Study protocol for a three-armed randomized controlled trial to assess whether house screening can reduce exposure to malaria vectors and reduce malaria transmission in The Gambia. Trials 9: 33.[Crossref]
  6. Kirby MJ, Ameh D, Bottomley C, Green C, Jawara M, Milligan PJ, Snell PC, Conway DJ, Lindsay SW, , 2009. Effect of two different house screening interventions on exposure to malaria vectors and on anaemia in children in The Gambia: a randomized controlled trial. Lancet 374: 9981009.[Crossref]
  7. Brabin BJ, Premji Z, Verhoeff F, , 2001. An analysis of anemia and child mortality. J Nutr 131: 636S648S.
  8. Snow RW, Azevedo IB, Lowe BS, Kabiru EW, Neville CG, Mwankusye S, Kassiga G, Marsh K, Teuscher T, , 1994. Severe childhood malaria in two areas of different falciparum transmission in East Africa. Acta Trop 57: 289300.[Crossref]
  9. Jones C, Williams H, , 2002. Social science in malaria control. Trends Parasitol 18: 195196.[Crossref]
  10. Binka FN, Adongo PB, , 1997. Acceptability and use of insecticide impregnated bednets in northern Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 2: 499507.[Crossref]
  11. Kirby MJ, Green C, Milligan P, Sismanidis C, Jasseh M, Conway DJ, Lindsay SW, , 2008. Risk factors for house-entry by malaria vectors in a rural town and satellite villages in The Gambia. Malar J 7: 2.[Crossref]
  12. Dawson S, Gunsalam J, Khan N, McNee A, , 1991. The application of qualitative research methods in the study of health seeking behaviour in relation to childhood acute respiratory infections, Bohol, The Philippines. Brisbane: Tropical Health Program, University of Queensland, 167.
  13. Gyapong M, Gyapong JO, Amankwa J, Asedam J, Sory E, , 1996. Introducing insecticide-impregnated bednets in an area of low bednet usage: an exploratory study in the north-east Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 1: 328333.[Crossref]
  14. Alaii JA, Van den Borne HW, Kachur SP, Mwenesi H, Vulule JM, Hawley WA, Meltzer MI, Nahlen BL, Phillips-Howard PA, , 2003. Perceptions of bed nets and malaria prevention before and after a randomized controlled trial of permethrin-treated bed nets in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 142148.
  15. D'Alessandro U, Aikins MK, Langerock P, Bennet S, Greenwood BM, , 1994. Nationwide survey of bednet use in rural Gambia. Bull World Health Organ 72: 391394.
  16. Aikins MK, Fox-Rushby J, D'Alessandro U, Langerock P, Cham K, New L, Bennet S, Greenwood BM, Mills A, , 1998. The Gambian national impregnated bednet programme: costs, consequences and net cost-effectiveness. Soc Sci Med 46: 181191.[Crossref]
  17. Reilley B, Abeyasinghe R, Pakianathar MV, , 2002. Barriers to prompt and effective treatment of malaria in northern Sri Lanka. Trop Med Int Health 7: 744749.[Crossref]
  18. Okrah J, Traoré C, Palé A, Sommerfield J, Müller O, , 2002. Community factors associated with malaria prevention by mosquito nets: an exploratory study in rural Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health 7: 240248.[Crossref]
  19. Atieli H, Menya D, Githeko A, Scott T, , 2009. House design modifications reduce indoor resting malaria vector densities in rice irrigation scheme area in western Kenya. Malar J 8: 108.[Crossref]
  20. Ogoma SB, Kannady K, Sikulu M, Chaki PP, Govella NJ, Mukabana WR, Killeen GF, , 2009. Window screening, ceilings and closed eaves as sustainable ways to control malaria in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Malar J 8: 221.[Crossref]
  21. MacCormack CP, Snow RW, , 1986. Gambian cultural preferences in the use of insecticide-impregnated bednets. J Trop Med Hyg 89: 295302.
  22. Njie M, Dilger E, Lindsay SW, Kirby MJ, , 2009. Importance of eaves to house-entry by anopheline, but not culicine, mosquitoes. J Med Entomol 46: 505510.[Crossref]
  23. Mshinda H, Killeen GF, Mukabana WR, Mathenge EM, Mboera LE, Knols BG, , 2004. Development of genetically modified mosquitoes in Africa. Lancet Infect Dis 4: 264265.[Crossref]
  24. Panter-Brick C, Clarke SE, Lomas H, Pinder M, Lindsay SW, , 2006. Culturally compelling strategies for behaviour change: a social ecology model and case study in malaria prevention. Soc Sci Med 62: 28102825.[Crossref]

Data & Media loading...

Supplementary Data

Supplemental documents

  • Received : 31 May 2010
  • Accepted : 18 Jun 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error