Volume 83, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In 2006, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) of the Asian genotype affected over 200 people in Bagan Panchor village in Malaysia. One year later, a post-outbreak survey was performed to determine attack rate, asymptomatic rate, and post-infection sequelae. Findings were compared with recent CHIKV outbreaks of the Central/East African genotype. A total of 180 residents were interviewed for acute symptoms and post-infection physical quality of life and depressive symptoms. Sera from 72 residents were tested for CHIKV neutralizing antibodies. The estimated attack rate was 55.6%, and 17.5% of infected residents were asymptomatic. Arthralgia was reported up to 3 months after infection, but there were no reports of long-term functional dependence or depression. Symptomatic and seropositive residents were significantly more likely to live in the area with the most dense housing and commercial activities. CHIKV had a high attack rate and considerable clinical impact during the Bagan Panchor outbreak.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Lam SK, Chua KB, Hooi PS, Rahimah MA, Kumari S, Tharmaratnam M, Chuah SK, Smith DW, Sampson IA, , 2001. Chikungunya infection—an emerging disease in Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 32: 447451. [Google Scholar]
  2. AbuBakar S, Sam IC, Wong PF, MatRahim N, Hooi PS, Roslan N, , 2007. Reemergence of endemic Chikungunya, Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis 13: 147149.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  3. Kumarasamy V, Prathapa S, Zuridah H, Chem YK, Norizah I, Chua KB, , 2006. Re-emergence of Chikungunya virus in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia 61: 221225. [Google Scholar]
  4. Pavri K, , 1986. Disappearance of Chikungunya virus from India and Southeast Asia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 80: 491.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Noridah O, Paranthaman V, Nayar SK, Masliza M, Ranjit K, Norizah I, Chem YK, Mustafa B, Kumarasamy V, Chua KB, , 2007. Outbreak of Chikungunya due to virus of Central/East African genotype in Malaysia. Med J Malaysia 62: 323328. [Google Scholar]
  6. Sam IC, Chan YF, Chan SY, Loong SK, Chin HK, Hooi PS, Ganeswrie R, AbuBakar S, , 2009. Chikungunya virus of Asian and Central/East African genotypes in Malaysia. J Clin Virol 46: 180183.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Google Maps, 2010. Bagan Panchor Dalam. Available at: http://maps.google.com/maps?q=4.533+100.633+(Bagan+panchor+dalam)&l=4.533,http://maps.google.com/maps?q=4.533+100.633&spn=05.0,http://maps.google.com/maps?q=4.533+05.0&t=k&hl=en. Accessed July 31, 2010. [Google Scholar]
  8. Mahoney FI, Barthel DW, , 1965. Functional evaluation: the Barthel index. Md State Med J 14: 6165. [Google Scholar]
  9. Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, Amorim P, Janavs J, Weiller E, Hergueta T, Baker R, Dunbar GC, , 1998. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry 59 (Suppl 20): 2233. [Google Scholar]
  10. Marchette NJ, Rudnick A, Garcia R, , 1980. Alphaviruses in peninsular Malaysia. II. Serological evidence of human infection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 11: 1423. [Google Scholar]
  11. Sissoko D, Moendandze A, Malvy D, Giry C, Ezzedine K, Solet JL, Pierre V, , 2008. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chikungunya virus infection in Mayotte, Indian Ocean, 2005–2006: a population-based survey. PLoS One 3: e3066.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Gérardin P, Guernier V, Perrau J, Fianu A, Le Roux K, Grivard P, Michault A, de Lamballerie X, Flahault A, Favier F, , 2008. Estimating Chikungunya prevalence in La Réunion Island outbreak by serosurveys: two methods for two critical times of the epidemic. BMC Infect Dis 8: 99.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Sergon K, Yahaya AA, Brown J, Bedja SA, Mlindasse M, Agata N, Allaranger Y, Ball MD, Powers AM, Ofula V, Onyango C, Konongoi LS, Sang R, Njenga MK, Breiman RF, , 2007. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya virus infection on Grande Comore Island, Union of the Comoros, 2005. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 11891193. [Google Scholar]
  14. Sergon K, Njuguna C, Kalani R, Ofula V, Onyango C, Konongoi LS, Bedno S, Burke H, Dumilla AM, Konde J, Njgenga MK, Sang R, Breiman RF, , 2008. Seroprevalence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection on Lamu Island, Kenya, October 2004. Am J Trop Med Hyg 78: 333337. [Google Scholar]
  15. Moro ML, Gagliotti C, Silvi G, Angelini R, Sambri V, Rezza G, Massimiliani E, Mattivi A, Grilli E, Finarelli AC, Spataro N, Pierro AM, Seyler T, Macini P, , Chikungunya Study Group, 2010. Chikungunya virus in north-eastern Italy: a seroprevalence study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 82: 508511.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  16. Retuya TJA, Jr Ting DL, Dacula BD, Lanada JM, Roque VG, Jr Hugo CT, Ogayon JG, Abad-Viola GB, Roces MCR, , 1998. Chikungunya fever outbreak in an agricultural village in Indang, Cavite, Philippines. Philipp J Microbiol Infect Dis 27: 9396. [Google Scholar]
  17. Raude J, Setbon M, , 2009. The role of environmental and individual factors in the social epidemiology of Chikungunya disease on Mayotte Island. Health Place 15: 689699.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  18. Honório NA, Nogueira RMR, Codeço CT, Carvalho MS, Cruz OG, Magalhães MAFM, de Araújo JMG, de Araújo ESM, Gomes MQ, Pinheiro LS, da Silva Pinel C, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R, , 2009. Spatial evaluation and modeling of dengue seroprevalence and vector density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e545.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  19. Porter KR, Beckett CG, Kosasih H, Tan RI, Alisjahbana B, Rudiman PIF, Widjaja S, Listiyaningsih E, Ma'Roef CN, McArdle JL, Parwati I, Sudjana P, Jusuf H, Yuwono D, Wuryadi S, , 2005. Epidemiology of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in a cohort of adults living in Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 6066. [Google Scholar]
  20. Borgherini G, Poubeau P, Jossaume A, Gouix A, Cotte L, Michault A, Arvin-Berod C, Paganin F, , 2007. Persistent arthralgia associated with Chikungunya virus: a study of 88 adult patients on Reunion Island. Clin Infect Dis 47: 469475.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  21. Souahoro MK, Gérardin P, Boëlle PY, Perrau J, Fianu A, Pouchot J, Malvy D, Flahault A, Favier F, Hanslik T, , 2009. Impact of Chikungunya virus infection on health status and quality of life: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS One 4: e7800.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 17 May 2010
  • Accepted : 28 Sep 2010
  • Published online : 06 Dec 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error