1921
Volume 83, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Recent reports from animal models and from cross-sectional studies have suggested that host responses to anti- saliva antibodies may be related to delayed-type hypersensitivity to antigen. In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated 1,080 children from two endemic areas for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) by means of Kaplan-Meier analysis. The incidence rate of delayed-type hypersensitivity to antigen, measured at the 24th follow-up month, was higher among those reactive to saliva antibodies at the beginning of the study (0.0217 cases per person-month) than among those previously negative (0.0131 cases per person-month) ( value for the log-rank test = 0.0006). It seems that mounting an anti-saliva immune response helps the development of a cell-mediated anti- response.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0182
2010-10-05
2017-09-26
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/83/4/825.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0182&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 2002. Urbanization: an increasing risk factor for leishmaniasis. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 77: 6.
  2. Brazil Ministério da Saúde, , 2006. Leishmaniose visceral (calazar). Distribuição de casos confirmados, por Unidade Federada. Brasil, 19802005. Available at: http://portal.saude.gov.br/portal/arquivos/pdf/leish_visceral.pdf.
  3. World Health Organization, 2010. Research to support the elimination of visceral leishmaniasis. Available at: http://apps.who.int/tdr/svc/research/visceral-leishmaniasis-elimination.
  4. Theodos CM, Ribeiro JM, Titus RG, , 1991. Analysis of enhancing effect of sand fly saliva on Leishmania infection in mice. Infect Immun 59: 15921598.
  5. Samuelson J, Lerner E, Tesh R, Titus R, , 1991. A mouse model of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis infection produced by coinjection with sand fly saliva. J Exp Med 173: 4954.[Crossref]
  6. Warburg A, Saraiva E, Lanzaro GC, Titus RG, Neva F, , 1994. Saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis sibling species differs in its composition and capacity to enhance leishmaniasis. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 345: 223230.[Crossref]
  7. Lima HC, Titus RG, , 1996. Effects of sand fly vector saliva on development of cutaneous lesions and the immune response to Leishmania braziliensis in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun 64: 54425445.
  8. Belkaid Y, Kamhawi S, Modi G, Valenzuela J, Noben-Trauth N, Rowton E, Ribeiro J, Sacks DL, , 1998. Development of a natural model of cutaneous leishmaniasis: powerful effects of vector saliva and saliva preexposure on the long-term outcome of Leishmania major infection in the mouse ear dermis. J Exp Med 188: 19411953.[Crossref]
  9. Norsworthy NB, Sun J, Elnaiem D, Lanzaro G, Soong L, , 2004. Sand fly saliva enhances Leishmania amazonensis infection by modulating interleukin-10 production. Infect Immun 72: 12401247.[Crossref]
  10. Valenzuela JG, Belkaid Y, Garfield MK, Mendez S, Kamhawi S, Rowton ED, Sacks DL, Ribeiro JM, , 2001. Toward a defined anti-Leishmania vaccine targeting vector antigens: characterization of a protective salivary protein. J Exp Med 194: 331342.[Crossref]
  11. Morris RV, Shoemaker CB, David JR, Lanzaro GC, Titus RG, , 2001. Sandfly maxadilan exacerbates infection with Leishmania major and vaccinating against it protects against L. major infection. J Immunol 167: 52265230.[Crossref]
  12. Kamhawi S, Belkaid Y, Modi G, Rowton E, Sacks D, , 2000. Protection against cutaneous leishmaniasis resulting from bites of uninfected sand flies. Science 290: 13511354.[Crossref]
  13. Vinhas V, Andrade BB, Paes F, Bomura A, Clarencio J, Miranda JC, Báfica A, Barral A, Barral-Netto M, , 2007. Human anti-saliva immune response following experimental exposure to the visceral leishmaniasis vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis . Eur J Immunol 37: 31113121.[Crossref]
  14. Gomes RB, Brodskyn C, de Oliveira CI, Costa J, Miranda JC, Caldas A, Valenzuela JG, Barral-Netto M, Barral A, , 2002. Seroconversion against Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva concurrent with the development of anti-Leishmania chagasi delayed-type hypersensitivity. J Infect Dis 186: 15301534.[Crossref]
  15. Oliveira F, Lawyer PG, Kamhawi S, Valenzuela JG, , 2002. Immunity to distinct sand fly salivary proteins primes the anti-Leishmania immune response towards protection or exacerbation of disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e226.[Crossref]
  16. Reed SG, Badaro R, Masur H, Carvalho EM, Lorenco R, Lisboa A, Teixeira R, Johnson WD, Jr Jones TC, , 1986. Selection of a skin test antigen for American visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 7985.
  17. Barral A, Honda E, Caldas A, Costa J, Vinhas V, Rowton ED, Valenzuela JG, Charlab R, Barral-Netto M, Ribeiro M, , 2000. Human immune response to sand fly salivary gland antigens: a useful epidemiological marker? Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 740745.
  18. Belkaid Y, Valenzuela JG, Kamhawi S, Rowton E, Sacks DL, Ribeiro JM, , 2000. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to Phlebotomus papatasi sand fly bite: an adaptive response induced by the fly? Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 67046709.[Crossref]
  19. Souza AP, Andrade BB, Aquino D, Entringer P, Miranda JC, Alcantara R, Ruiz D, Soto M, Teixeira CR, Valenzuela JG, de Oliveira CI, Brodskyn CI, Barral-Netto M, Barral A, , 2010. Using recombinant proteins from Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva to estimate human vector exposure in visceral leishmaniasis endemic areas. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e649.[Crossref]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0182
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0182
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 27 Mar 2010
  • Accepted : 14 Jul 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error