Volume 83, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



We report infection rates of the native kissing bug in southern California. The rates are within the historically reported range, but differ significantly between the two sites (19% in Escondido and 36% in Glendora). Identification of in was conducted for the first time by using partial 18S ribosomal RNA and 24Sα ribosomal RNA sequences. Incongruence of 24Sα ribosomal RNA phylogeny with current genotype classification supports non-clonality of some genotypes.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Schofield CJ, Jannin J, Salvatella R, , 2006. The future of Chagas disease control. Trends Parasitol 22: 583588.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  2. Ryckman R, , 1981. The kissing bug problem in western North America. Bulletin of the Society of Vector Ecologists 6: 3. [Google Scholar]
  3. Klotz SA, Dorn PL, Klotz JH, Pinnas JL, Weirauch C, Kurtz JR, Schmidt J, , 2009. Feeding behavior of triatomines from the southwestern United States: an update on potential risk for transmission of Chagas disease. Acta Trop 111: 114118.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  4. Navin TR, Roberto RR, Juranek DD, Limpakarnjanarat K, Mortenson EW, Clover JR, Yescott RE, Taclindo C, Steurer F, Allain D, , 1985. Human and sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in California. Am J Public Health 75: 366369.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  5. Bern C, Montgomery SP, Katz L, Caglioti S, Stramer SL, , 2008. Chagas disease and the US blood supply. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21: 476482.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  6. Reisenman CE, Lawrence G, Guerenstein PG, Gregory T, Dotson EM, Hildebrand JG, , 2010. Infection of kissing bugs with Trypanosoma cruzi, Tucson, Arizona, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 400405.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  7. Roellig DM, Brown EL, Barnabe C, Tibayrenc M, Steurert FJ, Yabsley MJ, , 2008. Molecular typing of Trypanosoma cruzi isolates, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 14: 11231125.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  8. Llewellyn MS, Miles MA, Carrasco HJ, Lewis MD, Yeo M, Vargas J, Torrico F, Diosque P, Valente V, Valente SA, Gaunt MW, , 2009. Genome-scale multilocus microsatellite typing of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing unit I reveals phylogeographic structure and specific genotypes linked to human infection. PLoS Pathog 5: 9.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  9. Zingales B, Andrade SG, Briones MRS, Campbell DA, Chiari E, Fernandes O, Guhl F, Lages-Silva E, Macedo AM, Machado CR, Miles MA, Romanha AJ, Sturm NR, Tibayrenc M, Schijman AG, , 2009. A new consensus for Trypanosoma cruzi intraspecific nomenclature: second revision meeting recommends TcI to TcVI. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 104: 10511054.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  10. Westenberger SJ, Sturm NR, Yanega D, Podlipaev SA, Zeledon R, Campbell DA, Maslov DA, , 2004. Trypanosomatid biodiversity in Costa Rica: genotyping of parasites from heteroptera using the spliced leader RNA gene. Parasitology 129: 537547.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  11. Souto RP, Zingales B, , 1993. Sensitive detection and strain classification of Trypanosoma cruzi by amplification of a ribosomal RNA sequence. Mol Biochem Parasitol 62: 4552.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  12. Souto RP, Fernandes O, Macedo AM, Campbell DA, Zingales B, , 1996. DNA markers define two major phylogenetic lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi . Mol Biochem Parasitol 83: 141152.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  13. Maslov DA, Lukes J, Jirku M, Simpson L, , 1996. Phylogeny of trypanosomes as inferred from the small and large subunit rRNAs: implications for the evolution of parasitism in the trypanosomatid protozoa. Mol Biochem Parasitol 75: 197205.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  14. Katoh K, Kuma K, Toh H, Miyata T, , 2005. MAFFT version 5: improvement in accuracy of multiple sequence alignment. Nucleic Acids Res 33: 511518.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]
  15. Wood SF, , 1975. Trypanosoma cruzi; new foci of enzootic Chagas disease in California. Exp Parasitol 38: 153160.[Crossref] [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 19 Mar 2010
  • Accepted : 01 Aug 2010
  • Published online : 05 Nov 2010

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error